Consequences of Urbanization on Development in African Cities

Consequences of Urbanization on Development in African Cities

Discuss the positive and negative consequences of urbanization on development in African cities. Use examples to support your answer.

i. Positive Effects

Jobs creation is a result of industrialization. Industrialization, which often occurs as a result of a transition from an agricultural economy, opens the way for modern industries and necessitates the employment of more people in a variety of vocations. Rural jobs, such as mining and agriculture, maybe labor-intensive (if not taken over by robots or automatic equipment), but urban employment options, such as healthcare, trade, and training (Ebeke & Etoundi, 2017), will require a large number of individuals with a diverse set of talents to fill various positions. Migration from the countryside to the city may be a selective process since specific individuals are more willing to relocate than others. Gender is among the elements at play because various occupations provide different prospects for men and women. Another consideration is your age. Young people are more inclined to relocate to cities, leaving rural regions with more elderly children and women (Ebeke & Etoundi, 2017). Migration preference has an impact on both rural and urban populations. If more males migrate to cities than women, rural areas will have a primarily female culture.

Modern technology allows for improved city infrastructure. Cities may adapt to cultural demands and create support structures for future growth through modernization. Furthermore, upgrading can result in a more sustainable city plan, with improved housing/businesses, market hubs, and public transportation networks (Henderson & Kriticos, 2018). For instance, in
progressive cities, digital technology may support giant corporations in bringing diverse hubs for automobiles, considerably lowering traffic in increasing cities.

ii. Negatives Effects

Water and sanitation services in rising populations, peri-urban and slum zones encounter substantial hurdles. Growing water consumption from population growth can put extra strain on already strained systems. Water is typically in limited supply in and around cities, and varied consumers are increasingly vying for it (Kaag & Steel 2019). Urban development boosts the need mainly for drinking and residential use, which competes with irrigated agriculture. Water and sanitation services are incredibly challenging to offer to disadvantaged locations and the most impoverished population. Many individuals in these locations lack access to clean water and adequate sanitation. Even if appropriate water sources are available, sewerage and wastewater disposal are frequently insufficient or non-existent.

Pit latrines and septic tanks are the most common means of treatment and disposal. Still, they have limited capacity and are
not always suitable to handle the volume of waste generated by numerous people living in close quarters (Garcia-Nieto et al., 2018). Surface water is contaminated by overflowing sewers and treatment plants, posing a significant health danger. The expanding population, the number of structures and development, and the increasing demand for resources affect land, freshwater, air, and biodiversity. It has several consequences on the physical environment. The absence of appropriate sanitation and sewage infrastructure has a significant effect on urban waterways. People employ rivers to dispose of rubbish from their houses, industries, and business organizations (Kaag & Steel, 2019). Human wastewater comprises organic compounds and nutrients, but industrial effluent contains a broad spectrum of dangerous contaminants.