Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (V)
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
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AGROFORESTRY
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
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CROP PESTS AND DISEASES
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
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CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
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CROP PRODUCTION II (PLANTING)
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS II (LAND TENURE AND LAND REFORM)
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
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CROP PRODUCTION III NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
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CROP PRODUCTION IV (FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS III (PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
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CROP PRODUCTION V (VEGETABLES)
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH (INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK HEALTH)
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
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FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
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FARM STRUCTURES
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
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FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
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CROP PRODUCTION VI FIELD PRACTICES FOR MAIZE, MILLET, SORGHUM, BEANS AND RICE: HARVESTING OF COTTON PYRETHRUM, SUGAR CANE COFFE AND TEA
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
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FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
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FORAGE CROPS
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION II (NUTRITION)
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH II (LIVESTOCK PARASITES)
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
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SOIL FERTILITY 1 (ORGANIC MANURE)
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION I COMMON LIVESTOCK BREEDS
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (BASIC CONCEPTS AND FARM RECORDS)
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (SELECTION AND BREEDING)
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IV (LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION V (POULTRY)
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
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SOIL FERTILITY II (IN ORGANIC FERTILIZERS)
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
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WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (LIVESTOCK REARING PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
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WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
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AGRICULTURE STUDIES
About Lesson

This topic entails the following:

  • Crop rotation
  • Reasons for crop rotations
  • Crop rotation programme
  • Terms used in crop farming
  • Mulching
  • Reasons for various field management practices
  • Correct stage for harvesting crops
  • Harvesting practices of various crops.

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and help the             user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices:

  1. Distinguish between staking and propping as a field management practice on crops
  2. Explain five advantages of crop rotation                                                                               
  3. State four factors which influence the stage at which the crops are harvested
  4. The diagrams labelled B and C below are illustrations of coffee plants established using two

            different formative pruning systems.                                                                                     

            Examine the diagrams and answer the questions that follow:-

(a) Identify the system of pruning illustrated in B                                                                            

            (b) Identify the system of pruning in C                                                                                             

            (c) Outline the procedure of how pruning in diagram C is carried out                                             

  1. Give two functions of earthing up in crop production
  2. Describe the factors which determine the stage of harvesting of crops
  3. Give two ways in which inorganic much helps to conserve water
  4. State four factors that determine the spacing of annual crops
  5. Explain the importance of each of the following practices: (i) Hardening off

                                                                                                            (ii) Pricking out

                                                                                                             (iii) Gapping 

  1. Outline two factors that determine the stage of harvesting crops
  2. (a) List four factors that determine harvesting sage of a crop

            (b) Give four practices that can be used to control storage pests                                         

  1. List four benefits of pruning in crop production
  2. (a) What is winnowing?

            (b) Give one importance of the following practices: (i) Mulching                                                                                                                                                    (ii) Threshing                                                 

(c) Which factors are considered when carrying out a crop rotation program?                    

  1. What is frelishing?
  2. Briefly explain how each of the factors listed below will determine the stage at which a crop is harvested

            (a) Intended use of the crop                                                                                                   

            (b) Market demand                                                                                                                

  1. What is roguering in crop production?
  2. What is meant by the term “changing the cycle” in coffee growing?
  3. The diagram below shows a practice carried out on various crops on the farm. Study them

            carefully and answer the questions that follow;

            (a) Identify the farm practice represented by B                                                                     

(b) State the importance of the above practice in the following crops;                                 

      (i) Maize

            (ii) Irish potatoes       

            (c) At what stage of growth should the above practice be carried out in maize?                  

  1. Mention four factors which determine the stage at which crops are harvested
  2. State two limitation of using polythene sheets as mulching materials in a field of tomatoes
  3. Give two management practices carried in a banana stool
  4. State two functions of polythene sheet when used as mulch material
  5. Give four crops requiring training

CROP PRODUCTION IV

(FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)

  1. Staking is supporting tall varieties of tomatoes using a stick fixed next to the plant and tied with

             sisal string while propping is supporting banana plant with sticks Mark as a whole= 1 mk

  1. five advantages of crop rotation
  • Improves soil fertility: where legumes are included nitrogen is fixed/ added in the soil
  • Control pests and diseases: disrupts the life cycle of certain pests and diseases
  • Control weeds: control weeds which are specific to certain crops e.g. striga in cereals/ cover crops in a rotation will smother certain weeds
  • Better use of the soil nutrients: different crops (due to differing root systems) draw nutrients from varying soils horizons/ different crops require different nutrients
  • Control of soil erosion: cover crops included reduce soil erosion
  • Improve soil structure: When grass lays are included which during the period organic matter will accumulate to enrich the soil and improve soil structure
  1. four factors which influence the stage at which the crops are harvested.

            – Purpose of the crop / maturity.

            – Moisture content.    

            – Concentration of certain chemicals.

            – Water condition.

            – Market demand.

  1. a) B.   –  Single stem pruning system.            (1×1=1mk)
  2. b) Identify the system of pruning in C.

            – Multiple stem pruning system.         (1×1=1mk)

  1. c) Outline how pruning in diagram C is carries out.

– Main stem of the seedling is capped/ cut stem at 38 – 60 cm high.

            – Two or three suckers are selected and allowed to grow while the rest are removed

  1. Two functions of earthling up in crop production
  • To influence tuber expansion
  • To retain water between the ridges which increases water conservation/infiltration
  • Reduces soil erosion

–    To prevent the greening effect in potatoes

  1. (a) The factors which determine the stage of harvesting of crops
  • Stage maturity of the crops
  • Use of the crop
  • Tastes and preferences of consumers
  • Weather conditions
  • Chemical conditions
  • Chemical concentration of the chemical
  • Moisture content ( 1mk x any 6pts = 6mks)
  1. – Reduces runoff thus increasing amount of water into the soil

Reduces evaporation thus increasing the amount of water retained

  1. – Moisture content of soil
  • Use of which the crop is to be put
  • Number of seeds per hole
  • Prevalence of certain diseases/ pests
  • Machinery to be used in subsequent operations
  • Fertility status of the soil
  1. i) To acclimatized the seedlings to direct light/ conditions in the seedbed
  2. ii) To avoid overcrowding and reduce competition for light.

            iii) Produce healthy and strong seedling

  1. iv) To obtain correct plant population
  2. Two factors that determine the stage of harvesting crops are:-
  • Purpose of crop
  • concentration of required chemical

11        a)    –   Weather condition                                                                                                      

  • Use/ purpose
  • Stage of growth
  • Concentration of the required chemicals (i.e. tea) ( ½ x4=2 mks)
  1.  b)    –    Proper drying of produce
  • Keeping storage facility/ structure clean
  • Use of pesticides on storage structure
  • Treating produce with pesticides e.g. cereals

Use of rodent guards                    

  1. Enable controlling over bearing by ensuring required leave ratio
  • Open up canopy for air and light penetration
  • Reduce chemical waste
  • Control pests and diseases
  • Allow other field operation

Give crop desired shape   

(c) Which factors are considered when carrying out a crop rotation program?                    

  1. a) -Removing of chaffs by use of wind

            b)i)-  Prevent erosion

  • Add organic matter
  • Conserve soil moisture
  • Raise soil temperature ( ½ mk)
  1. ii) – improve quality of grains by separating them from rest of plant (½ x1= ½ mks)
  2. c) – Root systems of crops
  • Botanical relation of crops
  • Nutrient absorption by plant

Susceptibility to pests, diseases or weeds

  1. a)This is support  given  to crops with  weak stem. So as to grow in the desired direction
  2. b) -Makes the plant to get enough sunlight to manufacture food i.e. prevent shading

             -leads to more productivity

-reduced infections of diseases from the grounds

  1. (a) Some crops are harvested earlier e.g. maize for silage at silking stage while maize for grains when the grains are dry;                                                                                          

            (b) A crop can be harvested earlier when the market demand is high;

  1. It is a farming practice that involves the removal and destruction of crop plants which are heavily

             infested with pests and diseases from the field.

  1. It is the replacement of old bearing stems by suckers. The cycle is usually changed

           after 4 – 6 years.

  1. a)- Earthening up
  2. b) Importance of the above practice
  3. i) Maize – provides support to prevent lodging
  4. ii) Irish potatoes – Improves tuber formation
  5. c) During second weeding
  6. Four factors which determine the stage at which crops are harvested                     
  • Original  conditions of land
  • Soil type
  • Cost
  • Size  of  planting materials
  • Soil moisture type of implement
  1. Two limitation of using polythene sheets as mulching materials in a field of tomatoes Expensive
  • Requires skilled labour
  • Does  not  decompose

May overheat soil around  crop roots

  1. – suckering

            -Pruning of leaves

            -Propping

            -Mulching

            -Earthing up

  1. – Smothers weeds

            -Regulate soil temperature

            -Conserve moisture

  1. -passion fruits

            -Deep rooted

            -Nitrogen fixing

            -Good by-products

            – Friendly too crops / not affent crop


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