Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (V)
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
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AGROFORESTRY
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
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CROP PESTS AND DISEASES
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
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CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
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CROP PRODUCTION II (PLANTING)
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS II (LAND TENURE AND LAND REFORM)
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
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CROP PRODUCTION III NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
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CROP PRODUCTION IV (FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS III (PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
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CROP PRODUCTION V (VEGETABLES)
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH (INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK HEALTH)
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
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FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
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FARM STRUCTURES
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
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FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
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CROP PRODUCTION VI FIELD PRACTICES FOR MAIZE, MILLET, SORGHUM, BEANS AND RICE: HARVESTING OF COTTON PYRETHRUM, SUGAR CANE COFFE AND TEA
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
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FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
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FORAGE CROPS
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION II (NUTRITION)
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH II (LIVESTOCK PARASITES)
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
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SOIL FERTILITY 1 (ORGANIC MANURE)
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION I COMMON LIVESTOCK BREEDS
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (BASIC CONCEPTS AND FARM RECORDS)
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (SELECTION AND BREEDING)
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IV (LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION V (POULTRY)
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
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SOIL FERTILITY II (IN ORGANIC FERTILIZERS)
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
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WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (LIVESTOCK REARING PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
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WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
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AGRICULTURE STUDIES
About Lesson

This topic entails the following:

  • Host-parasite relationships
  • Effects of parasites on livestock
  • Life cycle of parasites
  • Methods of parasite control in livestock
  • Identify different parasites

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and help the             user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices:

  1. Name two chemical methods used in deworming cattle
  2. a) state six  effects  of parasites                                                                                            
  3. b) Describe the life cycle of Taenia solium species of tapeworm                                         
  4. c) State four control measures of the tapeworm                                                                   
  5. Give two functions of calcium in dairy cows
  6. Give two control measures of fleas in a flock of sheep
  7. Give two measures a poultry farmer can use to control fleas in flock
  8. State two reasons why drenching alone is not an effective method of controlling internal parasites
  9. Give two forms in which a tape worm is found in livestock
  10. Below are diagrams showing different types of internal parasites. Study them carefully and

answer the questions that follow:-                                                                                         

  

  1. a) Identify the parasites K & M
  2. b) Identify the parts labelled
  3. c) Name the organs where each parasites is found
  4. d) Give the intermediate host of parasite M
  5. Give any two effects of external parasites that are harmful to livestock
  6. Outline the procedure followed when hand-spraying cattle to ensure effective use of acaricides

            to control ticks                                                                                                                                   

11        a) A boar gained 90Kg live weight after eating 360Kg pig finisher meal over a period of

            time. Calculate the feed conversion ratio                                                                              

  1. b) Describe digestion in the four stomachs of the ruminant animal
  2. c) Give the significance of lubrication system
  3. State four ways of controlling tsetseflies
  4. Name two types of roughages
  5. Name the common milk breed of goats reared in Kenya          
  6. Why are the element calcium and phosphorus important in the diet of young livestock?

16        Give two parasites of cattle which are also disease vectors                                                  

17        Give three control measures of fleas in a flock of layers                                                     

(LIVESTOCK HEALTH II

(LIVESTOCK PARASITES )

 

  1. – Use of caustic potash stick (potassium hydroxide)

– Use of dehorning collodion 

  1. a)
  • Cause anaemia
  • Deprive the hoof animal of food
  • Cause injury and damage to animal tissue and organs
  • Transmit diseases
  • Cause irritation
  • Cause obstruction to internal organs 
  1. b)
  • Human beings drop tapeworm segments/ progloltudes together with their faeces
  • Eggs are released from the segment. Once outside the human body
  • Eggs are picked by pigs when feeding
  • Eggs hatch into embryos in the intestine of pigs
  • The embryo penetrate the intestinal wall and enter into the blood stream
  • Embryo localize in the liver
  • Embryos are disturbed throughout the muscle where they become cyst/ bladder worms
  • Bladder worms get into human beings through eating under cooked pork/ bacon
  • Once inside the human intestines the cyst wall dissolves and the bladder worm attach themselves to the wall of intestines
  • Bladder warm develop into adult tape worm
  • Adult tape worm releases segments/ progloltides containing fertilized eggs with human faeces    
  1. c)
  • Use prophylactic drugs/ deworms to kill the internal parasites
  • Keep animal houses clean and disinfected
  • Practice rotational grazing
  • Use of clean feeding and watery equipment
  • Use of latrines/ proper disposal of human faeces

Proper cooking of meat

  1. Functions of calcium in dairy cows.

            – Milk and egg formation / production;

            – Bones / skeleton / teeth formation;              

            – Blood clotting;                                 

  1. Control measures of fleas.

            – Keep clean animals sleeping places;

            – Dust animal surroundings with appropriate insecticides;

            – Cover with petroleum jelly to suffocate stick fast fleas;     

  1. Control measures of fleas *NYR*
  • Dusting with appropriate insecticide in the pen
  • Ensuring cleanliness in poultry house
  • Dusting of the birds with correct insecticide
  • Applying petroleum jelly on infected parts (1mk each for any 2 pts = 2mks)

  1. two reasons why drenching alone is not an effective method of controlling internal parasites
  • Cannot  kill  all  stages  of  parasites                                                                                     
  • Cannot kill  the  eggs (2x ½ =1mk)

  1. -Embryo

-Cyst/bladder worm (2x ½ =1mk)

  1. a) K-tapeworm M-liver fluke
  2. b) a-hooks     b-suckers

                c-mouth           d-digestive glands

  1. c) i) Small intestine
  2.         ii) the liver
  3. d) Water snail (1×1=1mk)

  1. – External parasites effects

            – Transmit diseases

            – Causes anemia/ sucks blood

            – Causes irritation/ discomfort

            – Causes wounds on the skin that may predispose animal to secondary infection

            – Loss of hair

  1. – Read the manufacturers instructions carefully
  • Mix the acaricide appropriately
  • Pour the chemical solution into the knapsack sprayer through the sieve/ stir up pump container
  • Restore in the animal
  • Spray along the back to loin
  • Spray the sides
  • Spray under the belly including the udder/ scrotum
  • Spray the rear/ hind quarters
  • Spray fore limbs
  • Spray the face, the eras last
  • Allow the animal to drain the chemical
  • Release the animal

  1. a) Feed conversion is 90Kg/360Kg = ¼  = 1 : 4                                                                          *MMS*
  2. Digestion in ruminant animal – 4 stomachs
  3. i) Rumen (A pauch)

– Stores food temporarily

– Fermentation of food

– contains bacteria, fungi, protozoa which breaks down cellulose

– Synthesis of amino acids from ammonia gas

– Synthesis of vitamin B complex

  1. ii) Reticulum (Honey comb)
  • Sieves and separates fine from coarse food particles
  • Retrains foreign and undigestible materials

iii) Omasum (Many plies or book)

  • Stores food temporarily
  • Grinds and sieve food particles
  • Absorption of water
  1. iv) Abomasum (True stomach)
  • Enzymetic digestion takes place
  1. c)
  • Prevents rusting of surfaces
  • Reduces the rate of wear and tear of moving parts
  • Minimizes power loss due to friction
  • Acts as a cleaning agent
  • Reduces the heat created by the rubbing surfaces and acts as a seal between them

  1. Bush clearing to destroy breeding places

– Spraying breeding places with insecticides

– use fly traps with impregnated nets

– use stressing agents e.g. radio isotopes on male file sand then releasing them

  1. – Succulent

– Dry

  1. two common milk breed of goats reared in Kenya                                               
  • British Saaren
  • The  Toggenburg
  • Anglo-Nubian
  • Jamnapari
  • The  British alpine ( ½ x2=1mks

  1. the element calcium and phosphorus important in the diet of young livestock?
  • For bone  formation  and development
  • For proper  teeth  development
  • For  increased  conversion  of feed
  • Increase livestock appetite  (  ½  x1=1mk)

16        two parasites of cattle which are also disease vectors                                                           

  • Ticks
  • Tsetse flies

Mosquitoes

  1. -training

            -Giving incentives/motivation

            -Farm mechanization

            -Labour supervison

 


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