Databases and Data Management Theories

database theories

Databases and Data Management Theories

Databases and data management theories summarize a wide range of subjects. These topics are connected with the research and study of the theoretical dominion of the database management system(s) and databases. Some of the theories revolve around database management systems, and databases include the expressive power of queries and computational complexity. Others are the finite model theory, real-time database, database design theory, web data and dependency theory among others.

Relational models have been used most often for traditional research work because of its foundational and simplicity of its interest model. Other data models like object-oriented and graph data models are resulting from relational models. The key point on studying database theory is on comprehending the involvedness and power behind query languages and the logical connection. However, from the beginning, there are first-order logic and relational algebra which are equal to Codd’s theorem.

In addition, there is an essential query like graph reachability which is not language expressible.   They are a powerful language which is fixpoint logic and logic programmed based. Furthermore, the effort was the basis of data integration and query optimization.

The database management system, DBMS, is used in entering information which is organized in a manner that information can be accessed. In the year 1960, there was the innovation of the Integrated Database System by Charles Bachman, which was the first database management system. International Business Machine alias IBM, after that, came out with their database and called it IMS.

Throughout the 1960s, when computer flexibility and speed were developed, and they became popular, there were used in many different ways. The demand goes higher and leads to the more advanced development of database systems. The languages such as COBOL and CODASYL, for designing databases were developed and standardized. Later in the early 1970s, more detailed research was done and resulted in the construction of more advanced databases. The main idea was to come up with a complete, simple and comprehensive database which finally was a relational database model system. The new database model resulted in the most reliable data processing and storage facilities.

The introduction of relational databases management systems was to ease and bring efficiency and effectiveness in the storage and processing of data. As a result of relational database management systems, the processing of data was fast, and the art, music and photographic became common.

The NoSQL database was born from the internet, and the need for higher speed of processing and storing data was achieved. However, this database was preferred in a most relational database because of their flexibility as well as speed. NoSQL databases are uses distributed system databases and are non-relational. These kind of databases are advantageous over other databases because they lower the cost, flexible, is highly scalable, and can process both structured and semi-structured data.

Databases are applied in the computer program whose vital purpose is to enter and retrieve computerized database information. The modern database application is characterized and facilitated by concurrent queries and updates from several users. By the mid-1980s the database technology was advance even higher with the connection of PC and database server. In the early 1990s, more advanced database technology was introduced with a web interface. The web interface had an advantage that devices used are different sizes with separate hardware on a different operating system platform.

However, there is the more complex application of database which is accounting systems which comprises many tables in just only one module. Some of the application examples of database theories include Facebook and Twitter which are built on a larger database called MySQL. The term database application originates from the practice of isolating system programs from computer software. These system programs are such as application software and operating systems. The tools used for application programs and operating systems include a processor for checking payrolls.

Common Database and Data Management Theories

Generally, the database is divided into four crucial components. These modules include the user who includes system developer, database admin, and end users. The second modules belong to database applications which are comprised of personal, Enterprise, departmental and internal applications. The third component of the database is meant for a database management system which permits the user to access, create and manage the database files. The last modules are database itself which is a logical collection of organized data.

As far as database theory is concerned, database queries are used to extract information from the main content. The first relational database prototype is described by a finite model theory which is related to mathematics. This content of the database is such as Boolean queries for either true or false, which are articulated in first-order logic.

The first-order logic turns without expressive power which cannot be expressed in true/false queries. Moreover, care should be taken so as not to change the efficiency of second-order logic. As a result, there are some query languages which are compared on efficiency and expressive power.

In addition, the theory of database design explains the designing of a good non-trivial database. The theory avoids any error(s) arises in an unclear way. The primary aim of this theory is top grasp much of our model structure more so the restrictions in the database engine. By doing so, those constraints are enforced robotically and simplified by the logic of the application.

The dependency theory is a branch of database theory which explains, optimizes, and implicates problems which are connected to logical restrictions. The foundation of dependency theory is functional dependencies which is a basis of vital databases. Dependency theories are applied when data are needed to be changed and modified leaving the database table in a satisfactory state.  In general, the theory of dependency is meant to add semantics to structures of the database via communicating the restrictions.

For the deductive theories, these databases are developed to be used in database research and artificial intelligence. Researchers in the field of artificial intelligence did a lot of work in the areas such as natural language processing, theorem proving and knowledge representation. On the other hand, the database researchers dealt with data retrieval and efficient storage in secondary memory for data security and concurrency reasons. Finally, deductive databases are the significant and key element in databases and convergence of artificial intelligence.

Real-time database theory generally is data that are managed on a separate basis by every process in the process. However, with modern technology, systems of the days need handling a large amount of data and information but are limited by time. Hence, systems are forced to overwork leading to slow the processing of data to information. The real-time database systems are therefore applied for manipulation of data and information as well as efficient storage.

Analysis of the Gap between Database Theory and Practice

The theory and practice of database have grown to a matured level where it is studied tirelessly. The study of database system theory is of great importance since it is the foundation of research and effective use of the database management system. However, the practical bit of database systems prepares the student and researchers to talk about the needs of world application. The analysis of the gap between theory and practice is sometimes challenging to every researcher.

The need for business and non-profit organization using database systems is to be able to handle compound data which cannot be expounded by the human. Practicality, there are several ways known and suitable which are apprehended in both relevant data and control flow. These processes are available as either noncommercial or commercial tools. On the other hand, the theoretical databases are important in that they are used to decide the verification of data.

Causes of the Gap in Database Theory and Practice

This section focuses primarily on the causes of the gap in database theory and practice for highly growing data scale, audibility, and privacy. To begin with, the outbreak of many and new data type resources such as emerging media, social network, semantic web, and technology has increased rapidly. Several causes or issues are affecting big data theoretically and practically.  These issues include data management and storage where authors suggest that there is a need for storage reduce due to high speed. The other issue is on the security of big data. The companies that move data online to cut small technology cost will suffer security breakdown due to the failure of their third-party service and infrastructure. Finally, the issue analysis and computational amount of time required to navigate the data query.

Read Also: CIA History