Environmental Philosopher Holmes Rolston

Assignment 1:

Using The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed (Rolston) and the Wilderness Idea Revisited (Callicott) to support your response, summarize Environmental Philosopher Holmes Rolston’s viewpoint on Wilderness. How is Rolston’s perspective fundamentally different than James Callicott’s? Please read the Callicott essay first, and just pay attention to the major themes and points these authors make.


Holmes Rolston is a famous philosophical interpreter of the environment in plausibility
and meaning and one of the world’s top scientists in the field of natural philosophy, science, and
religion. Holmes, The perspective of Rolston about wildlife, is that people should be merely
guests and that wildness distinguishes people from nature. Just as man’s existence is so radically
unusual, people should drawback and let nature be, he argued in the Wilderness Idea
reconsidered (Callicot, 1998). Rolston said that we are developing as a civilization but still feel
that we should do what we have done in the past to leave the wild.

Ecology evolution


Callicott says that the supporters of wildness have studied ecology and have never heard
of evolution. However, they realize that development is controlling ecological development and
strictly natural history is what they cherish. They are not against natural changes. Even in rural
environments, they cannot oppose artificial developments. However, since you grasp the
difference between cultural and natural heritage, you know that cultural shifts alongside
environmental variations might be completely out of touch. In the context of urban planning,
Leopold uses the term ··stability (Callicot. 1998). Nature usually has consistent stability on this
scale and perpetual, and dozens of fanners do well to appear in the endless.

The stresses of predation, for example, on farmland as on wilderness areas, are never the
same. The growth of troubled soil is an expression of agricultural production. Most of these
disruptions are distinct from untamed nature. In such a soil, different stuff grows—more species
chosen by rs, fewer species selected from the k-selected one. The fungus and pathogenic bacteria
are other below, and hence the breakdown process is different. And this leads to above-ground disparities. The flow of energy and the nutrition cycle vary. The most significant number of
species in disturbed settings is usually discovered. However, this takes just into account the
counts of animals and the alpha variation (Rolston, 1998). If every ecosystem remains disrupted
at once, we lose the diversification of beta and gamma.

Assignment 2:

Using today’s reading, what does William Cronon say is the “trouble” with wilderness?  Please explain your stance on Cronon’s perspective.


The troubles with wildness, William Cronon says, we don’t see ourselves as part of the
wilderness. I support Cronon’s view that our view of civilization and wildness should be changed
since they are the same. We view modernity and wilderness as two different things, and I believe
that we need to harmonize to become one (Abbey, 1968). He points out in his essays, we may
probably foster ecological irresponsibility in any method that enables us to feel that we have
separated from nature – as the desert usually does.

Many witnessed the essay by Cronon as a threat against the very ideals that Marshall,
among others, struggled for, the same principles that are described by our own Forever Wild
Amendment and SL MPs that instanced Wilderness as an unpacked shrine unpacked by man –
where man himself is a visitor that remains unpacked. I have varied readings of Cronon’s article.
Contrary to his criticism, I believe that the Wilderness is celebrated as we do. But he challenges
us to realize that wildness is a viewpoint of our invention and not an autonomous nature. The
idea idealizes our connection with the natural environment with severe issues. It is a compelling
message. Cronon is no longer hurrying to remove safeguards from the Wilderness of Adirondack (Cronon, 1996). Still, his opinion is considered when considering the guidelines and practices that we want to represent in the SLMP and the Open Space Conservation Plan.

In the modern paradigm, Cronon started with the historical ideas of the Wilderness as a
wicked area that was sculpted separation of powers and figuratively by moralists. It was the same
desert of enmity and peril that explorers subdued at the frontier. From his reactions to his
indulgences to Frederick Jackson Turners’s article in 1893 (Cronon, 1968), "The meaning of the
Frontier in American history he connected past figures which began to transform our
relationships with the wild drastically.

Assignment 3:

How does Guha’s perspective differ from that of Arne Naess? Do you agree with Guha’s views on deep ecology? Why or why not? Please do the Arne Naess reading first, then Guha’s criticism of Naess, and try to focus on the main themes and differences between the authors.


fundamental component

Arne Naess emphasizes the value of this spontaneous experience. The impression of
gestures or networking of ties is a fundamental component of these experiences. We observe that
items in a massive network of relationships are nodes, nevertheless. When such an extensive
understanding occurs, we have a strong feeling of broad affiliation with what we feel. It implies
an increased sense of empathy and an increase in the concern for non-human existence. He
understands the dependency of our bodily and emotional well-being on the well-being of nature
(Gandhi, 1989). As a result, a natural tendency to safeguard non-human lives emerges.

Theme of Ecology

Arne’s opinion on deep ecology is that it is distinctive in the United States, and it is serious about implementing deep ecology globally. From the perspective of Arne Naess on deep ecology, nature and people are causing friction. He argues that we should establish nature reserves and set aside conservation areas because of such antagonism. While Guha’s view is that perhaps deep ecology is not so radical as it might appear (Naess, 1995). Guha contends that deep ecology is firmly entrenched in American culture and leads to severe social effects for emerging nations based on a study of environmental ethics and other cultural ecologies.


Guha points to the deeply misled motive of ecological science for preserving biotic coherence in the protection of human life, not addressing industrialized-level over-consumption, including tiny third-world affluent populations and increasing militarization. Secondly, the attention on the wilderness promoted by deep ecology has a detrimental impact on the developing world. Guha says that because agriculture involves most industrialized countries, a balance with the environment is required.

Ways to protect environment

Guha argued that instead of protecting the environment campaign, it looks like a branch of the wildlife protection group. Because of the wildlife movement features, deep ecology strives to provide contemporary society a leak from the frantic lifestyle and incorporate it into American
culture. Guha thus says that Western culture is the best tool for wilderness and culture alike, but
its economic and social repercussions are rejected in that medium (Gandhi, 1995). Guha, however, contrasts profound ecology with the Green plan of the German green movement.

Assignment 4:

Write a reflective entry (same topic with last three, according the reading form)


There are various wildlife methods to be comprehended. Historically it was considered a territory outside the Polish realm or mostly the human sphere in the Western paradigm. Wildlife now is mainly recognized as either wildlife or as a de-facto nature, once encompassing the majority of the surviving wildlife in the United States, as Wilderness Act. The debate usually refers to nature in a more broad sense than legal nature and clarifies the usage of a particular meaning of the term. Wildlife has profound and complex consequences as a notion, though. In many studies, the wilder ground of our being was not focused on the current, fractured, polarized idea.

Critical part

Wildlife has been a critical component of the green movement, which has served as its center in many aspects. The notion of wildness has become inter-sectionality very lately, though. For example, it was condemned as an illusion built socially, a theme park, or a jail. The Great New Wilderness discussion contains an essential source of criticism of wildlife. The two writers include; The Trouble with the Wild; or, Going Back to Wrong Nature; by William Cronon and; Wildness Imprisonment: wilderness areas as prisons.   Wildness has also become practically difficult, particularly concerning autonomy and ecology. We have realized that our protected zones are relatively tiny and separate, particularly in terms of species, to support themselves strongly. Preserved regions, therefore, looked like isolated islands.

Moral and Cultural Values

Cronon also criticizes wilderness by saying that it likes with moral and cultural ideals, specifically the sublime’s holy grandness the primal frontier simplicity. According to Cronon, it is so exquisite that the paranormal rests directly underneath the surface, and one may see the face of God. However, the significance of the magnificent has shifted through time from the original Romantic idea, linked to horror, to domesticated magnificent, which is now the ideal borderline is an increase of Rousseau’s nihilism. Wild nature blends the glory of essential, primitive existence with America’s holy story of genesis. In this respect, Cronon’s criticism is only an explanation of this idea of wildness and accomplishes nothing against this viewpoint.

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