Christian Religious Education CRE KCSE 2020/2021 Question






  1. Explain the different ways in which Christians in Kenya use the bible to

spread the Good news.

  1. Give the consequences of sin according to genesis 3:11
  2. What are teachings of the Genesis stories of creation?
  3. Give five reasons why reading the bible is important to Christians.
  4. Explain the different ways in which Christians in Kenya use the bible to

spread the good news.

  1. Identify five responsibilities given to human beings by God in the Genesis

stories of creation

  1. a) State the responsibilities given to human beings in Genesis Chapter

1 and 2.

  1. b) Outline the lessons that Christians learn about work from the Genesis

stories of creation.

  1. c) How can Christians care for God’s creation today?
  2. a) Give reasons why Christians read the Bible.
  3. b) With reference to the Genesis stories of creation in Chapter 1 and 2 outline

the attributes of God.

  1. c) What are the consequences of breaking taboos in traditional African


  1. a) Outline the differences in the two accounts of creation in Genesis 1 and 2.

(10 mks)

  1. b) From the story of the fall of human beings in Genesis chapter 3, state the

effects of sin.                                                                                     (6 mks)

  1. c) Identify any four causes of evil in Kenya                             (4mks)
  2. a) Give reasons why the Bible is referred to as a library                      (5mks)
  3. b) Outline five effects of the translation of the Bible into local

Languages.                                                                                        (10mks)

  1. c) State five ways through which the church is spreading the

word of God in Kenya.                                                                      (5mks)

  1. Identify the books referred to as the Apocrypha.
  2. Explain the effects of the bible translation into African languages in Kenya
  3. State the various occasions during which the bible is used in Kenya.
  4. Explain the problems Christians face in the work of evangelization.
  5. Identify the literacy forms used in the bible
  6. State the Biblical causes of sin.
  7. Why is it important for Christians to obey god?
  8. State ways in which Christians use the print media to spread the gospel
  9. What makes man the most important of all that was created by God?
  10. State the problems faced by Bible authors.








  1. Describe ways in which Abraham demonstrated his faith in God
  2. Outline the promises of god to Abraham
  3. Describe five actions from the life of Abraham which show his faith in


  1. List five animals used in making of the covenant between God and


  1. State the promises that God and Abraham
  2. a) State the characteristics of the covenant between God and Abraham.


  1. b) Explain the importance of God’s covenant with Abraham.        (10 mks)
  2. c) What lessons do Christians learn from the incident when Abraham was

willing to sacrifice his son Isaac?                                                       (5mks)

  1. Describe the covenant between God and Abraham
  2. Identify the circumstances under which covenants were made in the traditional

African society.

  1. Name five modern covenants
  2. What was the importance of the covenant made between God and Abraham?
  3. Name any three covenants made in the Old Testament.
  4. Why Abraham is called the father of faith?
  5. Explain the importance of circumcision of Abraham and his descendant
  6. From the Mt- Mariah experience explain what Abraham and his descendant
  7. From the Mt-Mariah experience explain what Abraham learnt about God’s nature
  8. Narrate the call of Abraham
  9. What can Christian learn from the call of Abraham?








  1. Outline the qualities of god learnt by the Israelites during the making of the

Sinai covenant.

  1. Describe ways in which God demonstrated his mercy to the Israelites at Mt.


  1. Explain the stages followed in the making of the Sinai covenant.
  2. List the qualities of Moses shown during his call at Mt. Sinai
  3. Identify five lessons that Christians learn about God from the call of


  1. State five ways in which God revealed himself to the Israelites at Mt.


  1. Give the values that a Christian can learn from the call of Moses.
  2. Describe how the Israelites worshipped God before the Babylonian exile.
  3. Explain the conditions given to the Israelites during the renewal of the

Sinai covenant.

  1. State five ways in which God’s power is demonstrated in the deliverance of

the Israelites from Egypt to the promised land.

  1. Give five lessons why Moses was not willing to go back to Egypt after his


  1. List five commandments given to the Israelites that teach on how to relate

to one another

  1. What problems did Moses face as he led the Israelites during the Exodus?
  2. a) Outline the activities carried out by the Israelites on the night of the Passover.

(5 mks)

  1. b) Give five reasons why the exodus was important to the Israelites.


  1. c) How do Christians show their respect for God?                                (5 mks)
  2. Give the events which took place on the night of the Exodus.
  3. Give similarities between the Jewish Passover and Christian Easter
  4. Identify ways in which the Israelites showed lack of faith during the Exodus.
  5. Describe ways in which Moses showed his obedience to God
  6. Give ways in which the Israelites disobeyed the Ten Commandments.
  7. Give lessons why God made a covenant with the Israelites at Mt.Sinai
  8. Explain what the Israelites understood about God from the Exodus experience.
  9. Why should Christians live by the laws of God?
  10. Describe the call of Moses.









  1. Explain ways in which injustice can disrupt peace in society.
  2. Give five activities of King Jeroboam that made the Israelites in the

Northern Kingdom turns away from God.

  1. Give reasons why the Northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed before the

Southern Kingdom of Judah.

  1. Identify five ways used by the Israelites kings to bring people back to God
  2. Explain the duties of Prophet Samuel
  3. Explain the factors that led to the failure of David’s successors.
  4. Explain the failures of King Saul
  5. Give reason why the Israelites demanded for a king
  6. State the achievements of Solomon as king of Israel.
  7. In what ways did David’s promote the worship of god?
  8. Explain why Samuel was opposed to kingship in Israel.
  9. Explain why David was the most successful king in Israel.
  10. Explain the importance of the temple in Jerusalem in the religious lives of the


  1. State the role of Judges in Israel.
  2. Outline the promises given to King davit
  3. Discuss the qualities modern leaders should have form the example of David.
  4. Explain how King Solomon turned away from the covenant way of life .
  5. Name nine Judges in Israel.
  6. Explain five challenges that the Israelites faced during the period of Judges.









  1. What circumstances led to the contest between Prophet Elijah and the

Prophets of Baal at Mt. Carmel?

  1. Explain the circumstances which led to the spread of idolatry in Israel
  2. What were the characteristics of the Canaanites religion?
  3. State five challenges that prophet Elijah faced in Israel
  4. Describe the problems faced by prophet Elijah in Israel.
  5. State five practices of idolatry during the time of Prophet Elijah
  6. a) Describe the nature of the Canaanite religion. (10 mks
  7. b)    Identify ways in which King Jeroboam contributed to religious schism

between Judah and Israel.                                                       (4 mks)

  1. c)   What life skills do Christians need to use in order to fight corruption in

Kenya today?                                                                (6 mks)

  1. a) Describe the contest between prophets of Baal at mount Carmel

(1st Kings 18:17-40).                                                                           (7mks)

  1. b)    Give four conditions that made it difficult of Prophet Elijah to stop idolatry in Israel.                                                                                                         (8mks)
  2. c) Identify five qualities of Prophet Elijah that a Christian leader should possess.                                                                                                                                (5mks)
  3. What did the Israelites learn about the nature of God from the Mt.Carmel


  1. List down some forms of corruption in our society today.
  2. Name the signs used by God to show his power over Baal’s during the time of


  1. In what ways did Jezebel and Ahab break the covenant way of life in Naboth’s


  1. Why is idol worship condemned in the Old Testament?
  2. What is the relevance of Elijah’s prophetic mission to the Christians today?
  3. Give reasons why Elijah was forced to escape from Israel.
  4. Identify the lessons one would learn from Mt. Carmel contest.
  5. Identify seven forms of idolatry that threaten Christianity today.
  6. Identify and explain three life skills that Elijah used to fight corruption in Israel.





  1. a) What was the significance of the Traditional African initiation rites?
  2. b) Explain the role of the sponsor during Traditional African circumcision


  1. Explain the modern factors affecting the Traditional African heritage.
  2. a) Explain the reasons why myths are important in traditional

African communities.

  1. b) Explain how the rites connected with initiation into adulthood express

traditional African beliefs in life after death.

  1. c) Give the responsibilities of the living to the ancestors in the African

traditional communities.

  1. Explain the reasons why traditional African communities offer sacrifices.
  2. Explain the methods of disciplining errant members in traditional African


  1. Explain the methods of disciplining errant members in traditional African



  1. Give five reasons why the newly initiated young men lived together in a

community for some time.

.8.        state five ways in which people in the Traditional African Communities

helped bereaved families

  1. Identify five occasions when oaths were administered in traditional

African communities.

  1. Give five reasons why initiated young men lived together in a community

for some time.

  1. Give reasons why oaths were administered in traditional African


  1. Give reasons why oaths were administered in traditional African


  1. Outline ways through which a marriage partner is chosen in

Traditional African Communities

  1. a) What changes have taken place in the rite of initiation in Kenya today?

(8 mks)

  1. b) Identify moral values taught to the youths during initiation to

adulthood in traditional African communities.                      (6mks)

  1. c)         Identify the factors that are undermining the role of elders in Kenya

today                                                                                        (6 mks)

  1. a)          Identify practices in traditional African communities that show their

belief in life after death.                                                        (8mks)

  1. b) Identify moral values taught to the youths during initiation to

adulthood in traditional African communities.                      (6mks)

  1. Why was courtship important in Traditional African Community?
  2. Explain the importance of dowry in modern society?
  3. Explain five roles of a diviner in the Traditional African society.
  4. Outline ways in which traditional African communities show respect for unborn


  1. In what ways did the traditional Africans maintain their relationship with the


  1. Give the similarities found in African myths
  2. What was the role of rainmakers in the African community?
  3. Explain how wealth was acquired in African Traditional Society.
  4. Explain the conditions under which divorce may be allowed in African

Traditional society.











  1. Explain ways in which Jesus fulfilled Old Testament prophecies on the Messiah.
  2. State the Jewish expectations concerning the Messiah
  3. Describe Nathan’s prophecy about the Messiah.
  4. Give the prophecies about the Messiah found in psalms 41: 19 and 110:1-2
  5. Describe Jeremiah’s prophecy about the Messiah.
  6. On the prophecies about the coming of the Messiah, what picture does prophet

Isaiah present of the servant of Yahweh?

  1. In which ways are church leaders preparing the people in the society for the

coming of Jesus?

  1. Explain the role of John the Baptist.
  2. How does the New Testament portray Jesus as he promised Messiah?
  3. Identify ways in which Jesus fulfilled the prophecies of the suffering servant of

Yahweh according to Isaiah.








  1. Explain ways in which the birth and life of Jesus were to be extraordinary

according to the annunciation of his birth.

  1. In what ways did Jesus observe the religious practices of the Jews?
  2. List five Jewish ceremonies in which Jesus was involved in.
  3. State five Jewish ceremonies in which Jesus was involved in.
  4. With reference to the visit of the angle Gabriel to Mary state five

Revelations about Jesus Christ.

  1. With reference to the incident when Jesus was dedicated to God at the age

of forty days outline what Simeon and Anna revealed about his life?

  1. What lessons do Christians learn about family relationships from the

incident when Jesus accompanied his parents for the Passover festival?

  1. a)           Outline the message of angel Gabriel to Mary in Luke 1: 26-38


  1. b) Explain what the magnificat reveals about the nature of God.       (8mks)
  2. c) Identify six qualities shown by Jesus when he accompanied his

parents to the temple at the age of twelve.                                      (6mks)

  1. Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah.
  2. Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?
  3. What lessons do Christians learn from the annunciation of the birth of John the


  1. What lessons can a Christian learn from the annunciation of the birth of Jesus?
  2. Describe the birth of John the Baptist.
  3. Identify the main ideas in the magnificent
  4. Describe the birth of John the Baptist
  5. Identify the main ideas in the Benedictus.
  6. Describe the dedication ceremony during the infancy of Jesus.
  7. Outline the angel’s message to Zechariah.






  1. Write down five teachings of John the Baptist about Jesus Christ.
  2. Mention different occasions when Jesus was tempted?
  3. Identify five occasions in the life of Jesus when he was tempted?
  4. Identify five occasions in the life of Jesus when he was tempted
  5. State the differences between the work of John the Baptist and that of Jesus


  1. a) Describe the temptations of Jesus in the wilderness before he begin his

public ministry.                                                                                (8mks)


  1. b) What lessons do Christians learn from the temptations of Jesus?  (5mks)
  2. c) Identify problems faced by new converts in the church today.      (7mks)
  3. a) Describe the baptism of Jesus in river Jordan by John the Baptist in Luke

3:21-22                                                                                             (5mks)

  1. b) Outline four teachings of John the Baptist in Luke 3:21-22.           (5mks)
  2. c) Why are Christians finding it difficult to apply the teachings of John the

Baptist in their lives today?                                                 (7 mks)

  1. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized.
  2. From the gospel according to St. Luke, identify five occasions when Jesus was


  1. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptation in the contemporary


  1. Explain the lessons for Christian’s baptism
  2. Describe the baptism of Jesus?.
  3. What us the relevance of John the Baptist teaching to Christian today?
  4. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted today
  5. Describe the temptations of Jesus







  1. In what way is God’s power demonstrated in the healing miracles of Jesus?
  2. Give five lessons that a Christian can learn about the nature of Jesus from the incident when he cast out a demon from the man in a synagogue at Capernaum.
  3. Give the reasons why Pharisees were referred to as hypocrites by Jesus.
  4. Identify five ways through which Jesus prepared the disciples for his coming death.
  5. What should be the qualities of an evangelist in Kenya today?
  6. a) Outline what Angle Gabriel revealed about John the Baptist when he

announced his birth to Zechariah.                                        (6 mks)

  1. b) From the story of the early life of Jesus up to twelve years, identify ways

through which he is seen as coming from a poor background.


  1. c) Give reasons why children should take part in church activities    (6mks)
  2. Give reasons why Jesus used parables
  3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced oppositions from the Jewish religious leaders
  4. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today
  5. Relate the miracle in which Jesus cast out evil spirit from a man at Capernaum
  6. Explain ways in which the disciples of Jesus showed their support to his ministry.
  7. State the obstacles Christian’s leaders face as they do their work.
  8. Explain why Jesus was rejected in Nazareth his home town
  9. State the lessons that Christians learn about Jesus in his temptations in the wilderness
  10. Give reasons why many people still reject the good news.
  11. Identify the qualities of the disciples according to Jesus.







  1. What was the importance of transfiguration to the ministry of Jesus?
  2. Discuss the teachings of Jesus in the parable of the sower.
  3. With reference to the life ministry of Jesus identify activities which show that He was a worker
  4. What was the significance of the transfiguration of Jesus to His disciples?
  5. Identify actions which show that Jesus loved the needy
  6. Relate the story of the feeding of the five thousand.
  7. List five lessons Christians learn about Jesus from the miracles of healing
  8. Give five qualities of the Roman Centurion who requested Jesus to heal his servant.
  9. What lessons fid the disciples of Jesus learn from the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand?
  10. State reasons why Jesus healed the sick.
  11. Outline the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain
  12. Identify ways through which the church continues with the healing ministry of Jesus Christ.
  13. Describe the healing of the Garasene demoniac in Luke 8: 26-39 (8mks)
  14. Narrate the parable of the lamp under a bowl.
  15. What lessons do Christians learnt from the parable of a lamp under a bowl?
  16. How can Christians share their spiritual knowledge?
  17. Describe the incident when Jesus’ true family came looking for him
  18. What lessons do Christians learnt from the story of the family of Jesus?
  19. What were the major themes brought out in the parable?
  20. Describe how Jesus calmed the storm
  21. State Jesus teaching about forgiveness from the account of the adulterous woman
  22. Give an account of the feeding of the 5000
  23. Describe the person of Jesus and his destiny.






  1. What is the New Testament teaching on prayer?
  2. Why do some Christians find it difficult to pray?
  3. State the teachings of Jesus on how a Christian should approach god in prayer.
  4. Explain the duties and privileges of disciples
  5. What lessons can Christians learn from the teaching of Jesus on discipleship?
  6. What lessons can Christians learn about being committed followers of Jesus?
  7. How did Jesus encourage his disciples to overcome hypocrisy?
  8. Identify three practices that Jesus criticized the Pharisees about.
  9. Why did Jesus condemn the teachers of the law?
  10. Why is it important for Christians to pray?
  11. Explain Jesus’ teachings on prayer
  12. Identify the problems that Christian encounter today in their commitment to


  1. What is the relevance of Jesus’ teaching on discipleship to Christians today?






  1. With reference to the parables of Jesus explain his teachings about the kingdom of


  1. What five lessons can a Christian learn from the parable of the prodigal son?
  2. With reference to the story of the rich man and Lazarus, explain the

teachings of Jesus on responsibility to others.

  1. How five parables used by Jesus to teach about kingdom of God

from the parables of the yeast and the mustard seed..

  1. List five parables used by Jesus to teach about the kingdom of God.
  2. List five teachings about kingdom of God from the parables of

the yeast and the mustard seed.

  1. Why do some Christians find it difficult to share their wealth with


  1. Give reasons why Jesus used the parable of the last son in his


  1. Explain how the gap between the rich and the poor can be minimizes in the


  1. Why should a Christian share his wealth?
  2. Narrate the parable of the prodigal son
  3. Narrate the parable of the rich man and Lazarus
  4. State the lessons that a Christian can learn from the parable of the rich man and


  1. Explain ways through which Christians show concern for the suffering in society.
  2. Narrate the parable of the widow and the unjust judge.
  3. In what ways do people misuse their wealthy?
  4. Discuss Jesus teachings on wealth.




  1. Describe the triumph entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.
  2. Explain the cleansing of the temple
  3. Give an account of the question about Jesus authority.
  4. Give an account of the parable of the tenants
  5. Evaluate the questions about the messiah
  6. Why did Jesus drive out the merchants from the temple using a whip?
  7. What is the relevance of Jesus teaching on eschatology to Christians?
  8. Why did Jesus weep over Jerusalem?
  9. Outline the predictions that Jesus made about the end times.

















  1. Give reasons why Jesus used bread and wine during the last supper
  2. Outline the actions taken by the Jewish leadership to ensure that Jesus was

put to death.

  1. What lessons can a Christian learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial

of Jesus?

  1. How did the resurrected Christ reveal Himself to his followers?
  2. Give five reasons why it was necessary for Jesus to have the last super with

his disciples.

  1. Outline the preparations that Jesus made for the last supper
  2. Identify the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus.
  3. a) Outline the events that took place on the Mount of Olives before the arrest

of Jesus.                                                                                   (7mks)

  1. b) Give reasons why Peter denied Jesus.                                                (8mks)
  2. c) Why is the death of Jesus important to Christians?                (5mks)
  3. a) How did Jesus celebrate the last supper with disciples?         (7mks)
  4. b) Outline the lessons that Christians learn from the incident when Jesus went to pray with his disciples on the Mount of Olives. (5mks)
  5. c) Give four reasons why the disciples found it difficult to believe that Jesus had resurrected. (8mks)
  6. Give reason why the resurrection of Jesus is important to Christians.
  7. Give the names given to the Lord’s Supper.
  8. Why did Pilate agree to have Jesus crucified
  9. How did Jesus prepare for His death?
  10. State the actions taken by Jewish leaders to ensure Jesus was put to death.
  11. Explain the preparations made for the last supper by the disciples of Jesus.
  12. Give reasons why Christians celebrate the last supper.
  13. Give reasons for the behaviour and reactions of the Jewish leaders to Jesus.
  14. Give reasons why Peter denied Jesus
  15. Explain the event that took place between the arrest and burial of Jesus.
  16. Explain how events on the cross fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies.
















  1. Write down five activities of the church in Kenya, which show that the Holy

Spirit is working among Christians

  1. Write down five teachings about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day of


  1. State the teachings of Saint Paul in (1 corn 13) about love
  2. State five ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit have been abused in

the church .today

  1. List five spiritual gifts given to the church according to Saint Paul
  2. Ways in which Peter’s life was transformed on the day of Pentecost-Acts
  3. Outline the teaching of Jesus on the role of the Holy Spirit
  4. With reference to the day of Pentecost, outline Peter’s message to the


  1. Explain how the use of the Holy Spirit brought disunity in the

Church at Corinth                                                                   (6 mks)

  1. a)        State ways in which the Holy Spirit brought disunity in the church today?

(6 mks)

  1. b) How are the gifts of the Holy Spirit misused in the church today? (6 mks)
  2. Identify the fruit of the Holy spirit taught by Saint Paul in Galatians 5: 22-23                                                                                     (5mks)
  3. State the fruits of the Holy Spirit
  4. In what ways do Christians today use the fruits of the Holy spirit to spread the Gospel
  5. In what ways did the Holy Spirit manifest himself on the day of Pentecost?
  6. Explain how the use of the Holy Spirit brought disunity in the church at Corinth.






  1. Identify five causes of disunity in the early church.
  2. Explain the factors that prevent effective church co-operation in Kenya.
  3. Explain the factors that prevent effective church co-operation in Kenya.
  4. Give reasons why Christians in Kenya should work in unity
  5. a)       In what ways was the celebration of the Lord’s supper misused in the

Church at Corinth.

  1. b)      Give reasons why Christians take part the Holy Communion
  2. a)        Explain what the teaching of Jesus about the vine and the branches in John

15:1-10 reveal about the unit church in Kenya today.                       (7mks)

  1. What symbolic titles do Christians use to describe their unity?
  2. In what ways are the people of God described (1 peter 2:9-10)
  3. Outline the New Testament teaching on unity of believers as the bride
  4. Explain the vine and the branches as a symbol of unity of believers.
  5. Identify ways in which the unity of believers is expressed in the concept of the body of Christ.







  1. Discuss how Jesus fulfilled the old testament prophecies about the messiah
  2. Why did the prophets of the old testament condemn the way the Israelites


  1. With reference to the  Old testament outline the characteristics of a true


  1. Explain the role of prophets in the Old Testament.
  2. Describe the characteristics of the  false prophets in the old testament ( 7 mks)
  3.  (a)       State three differences between prophets in the  Old Testament and

Traditional African communities (6 mks)

(b)       Outline the various ways through which the Old Testament prophets communicated their messages to the people.

  1. Explain ways in which prophets of God were important in the life of the nation of Israel.
  2. What lessons can Christians learn from the lives of old testament prophets
  3. Identify the various ways through which the Old testament prophets communicated their messages to the people
  4. Give features of false  prophets in Israel




  1. State the sins that were condemned by prophet Amos
  2. List five visions that Amos saw concerning the coming judgment on the

People of Israel.

  1. Give reasons why prophet Amos was against the way the Israelites

Worshipped God.

  1. (a) State the teachings of prophet Amos about  the day of the lord        (8 mks)

(b) How can Christians assist the church leaders to perform their duties effectively?

(5 mks)

  1. How is the church promoting social justice in Kenya today? ( 6 mks)
  2. (a) In what ways did the Israelites break their relationship with God during the time

of Amos.

(b) State the relevance of Amos message on judgment for Christians today.

  1. Describe how Amos background was relevant to his future career.
  2. Show how the poor were oppressed during the time of prophet Amos
  3. Explain Amos teachings on social justice and responsibility in Israel.







  1. Discuss the circumstances  which  led to the exile of the Israelites in


  1. With reference to Jeremiah chapter 2: 14 -19, state Jeremiah’s five

Responses to God’s call.

  1. With reference to the teachings of Jeremiah describe how the Israelites

Were encouraged to live in hope during the Babylonian exile.

  1. What problems did prophet Jeremiah encounter
  2. What problems did the Israelites face during the Babylonians exile?
  3. Identify the evils that prophet Jeremiah condemned
  4. Explain Jeremiah’s teaching on the “New covenant”.
  5. What lesson do Christians learn from Prophet Jeremiah to teaching on the

New covenant?

  1. Identify the symbolic acts used by prophet Jeremiah’s demonstrate God’s

Judgment and punishment to the Israelites

  1.      (a)        Explain the significance  of the  symbolic  act  of buying  land by

Prophet Jeremiah                                                         (8 mks)

(b)       Outline the sufferings of prophet Jeremiah during his ministry

(c)        State five ways in which Christians resolve conflicts among


  1. Explain the differences between the old covenant and the new covenant as foretold by prophet Jeremiah
  2. List reasons why Jeremiah has been called the “suffering prophet”.
  3. State the qualities of God learnt from the call of  prophet Jeremiah
  4. Describe the sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah
  5. (a) What prompted  Jeremiah to give the sermon at the temple gate

(b)  What lessons can Christians learn from teaching of Jeremiah in the temple sermon







  1. Outline the problems that Nehemiah encountered in rebuilding the wall of


  1. (a)        Explain the different occasions  when Nehemiah prayed      ( 8 mks)

(b)       In what ways did Nehemiah demonstrate qualities of a good leader during

His time?                                                                                 (7 mks)

(c)        What is the importance of prayer in the life of a Christian today? (5 mks)

  1. (a)        Relate six occasions when Nehemiah prayed

(b)       Explain the importance of prayer in Christian life

  1. How did Nehemiah leadership  qualities assist him in dealing with the problems  he encountered
  2. Give the similarities  in the life  and experiences of Nehemiah and Jesus Christ
  3. Outline the reforms carried out by Nehemiah after Babylonian exile.
  4. State leadership qualities that a modern leader can learn from Nehemiah.






  1. State the difference between the traditional African and modern attitude towards marriage.
  2. (a) Discuss the measures taken by the traditional African Communities to discourage

Pregnancy before marriage.

(b) What factors- have contributed to sexual immorality among the

youth in Kenya today?

(c)  Suggest ways in which the church can help single parents

  1. (a) Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it

difficult to harmoniously live together.                                  (10 mks)

(b)  Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today. (7 mks)

  1. Reasons why taboos were important in traditional African Communities
  2. (a) State ways in which sex is abused in Kenya              ( 6 mks)

(b) Describe the problems faced by the family living with a member

who is living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (7 mks)

  1. (a) How was marriage formalized in traditional communities ( 8 mks)

(b) Why was polygamy common in traditional African communities?   (8 mks)

(c) State the role of parents in traditional African family. (9 mks)

  1. (a) Give reasons why pre- marital pregnancies were rare in traditional

African communities                                                               (12 mks)

(b) State the causes of prostitution in Kenya today                     (8 mks)

(c)  What is the role of a midwife in traditional African communities? (5 mks)

  1. (a) Outline ways through which a marriage partner is chosen in traditional

African communities                                                               (12 mks)

(b) Explain why divorce is rare in traditional African communities (6 mks)

(c) Identify the effects of divorce on children in Kenya today    (7 mks)

  1. Identify in which Christians assist people who are living with HIV/AIDS. (5 mks)
  2. (a) What are the advantages of monogamous marriages? ( 8 mks)

(b)  Give reasons why the church is involved in the fight against HIV and AIDs.

  1. (a) Outline the Christian teachings on marriage ( 6 mks)

(b) How should Christians prepare for marriage?                        (8 mks)

(c) Give reasons why some Christians break their marriage vows?

  1. Explain the Christian attitude to human sexuality ( 7 mks)
  2. State the disadvantages of single parent family today (8 mks)
  3. Give reasons why the church is against gay marriages ( 6 mks)
  4. Give reasons why defilement of minors is on increase in Kenya (5 mks)
  5. Why do Christians condemn incest in society? ( 5 mks)
  6. Highlight the various causes of domestic violence                      ( 6 mks)
  7. Outline ways in which church prepares its youth for marriage ( 10 mks)
  8. Give reasons why there is campaign for girl child education in Kenya(4 mks)
  9. Explain the features of traditional African family                       ( 7 mks)
  10. What are the causes of conflict in husband relationship? ( 5 mks)
  11. Identify 7 factors that have made it difficult to curb the spread of HIV/ AIDs. ( 7 mks)
  12. How would you advice the youth on use of artificial contraceptives.( 2 mks)
  13. List down the factors that one should consider when choosing a marriage partner today                                                                   ( 5 mks)
  14. Under what circumstances may some people justify abortion? ( 5 mks)
  15. How is the church helping the youth to ideal with temptation of pre-marital sex?






  1. Explain the relationship between work and leisure in the Christian context
  2. Give five reasons why a Christian should not resort to strike action as away of presenting grievances                                                 ( 5 mks)
  3. (a) State 5 ways in which the church can promote self employment in modern

Society                                                                                                ( 5 mks)

(b)  Give reasons why Christians condemn idleness                     (10 mks)

(c)  Explain factors that have led to unemployment in Kenya today (8 mks)

(d)  Outline steps the church in Kenya is taking to solve problem of unemployment                                                                                                                             (7 mks)

  1. Give factors that a Christian employer should consider  when  making decision on salary for an employer
  2. (a) Write down 5 consequences of denying employee rest
  3. (a) Explain the factors that contribute to unemployment in Kenya ( 6 mks)

(b) Give eight causes of conflict between the employer and employees in Kenya

(8 mks)

(c) Discuss the role of a Christian during a strike                                    (6 mks)

  1. Discuss how children are abused in the work place ( 8 mks)
  2. Identify how Christians can deal with issues of child labour and neglect

(4 mks)

  1. Explain factors which result in strained relationship between employers and employees
  2. Explain the effects of industrial action on the employees                       ( 7 mks)
  3. What factors lead to child labour? ( 8 mks)
  4. In what ways has the Kenya government encouraged self employment? ( 7 mks)
  5. Discuss the Christians teaching about work ( 8 mks)
  6. Give the qualities of a good worker
  7. Explain the Christian teaching on wages                                                ( 7 mks)
  8. Explain the role of professional ethos in society






  1. Identify 5 reasons why the taking of alcohol as way of spending leisure is condemned                                                                                          ( 5 mks)
  2. Write down 5 ways in which modern Christian use their leisure time ( 5 mks)
  3. Give 5 ways in which drug abuse could affect a Christian family ( 5 mks)
  4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug abuse. (5 mks)
  5. (a) Why is leisure important in the life of a Christian youth? (12 mks)

(b) What factors have contributed to the misuse of leisure in Kenya today?

  1. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya today. (7 mks)
  2. In what ways can a drug addict be assisted to overcome the problem? (6 mks)
  3. Outline the purpose that may lead to misuse of leisure in a modern society (8 mks)












  1. (a) Describe how wealth was acquired in traditional African communities.( 5 mks)

(b) Explain how money economy has undermined the principle of Christian living

(c) With reference to the proper use of wealth in the bible sate various ways in

which Christians in Kenya utilized their wealth.

  1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth ( 7 mks)
  2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and  use of wealth             ( 7 mks)
  3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today ( 8 mks)
  4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability ( 5 mks)
  5. Give ways in which Kenyan government is alleviating levels of poverty( 7 mks)
  6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today

(7 mks)

  1. Explain how unfair distribution of wealth can lead to social disorder in Kenya today

(8 mks)







  1. State any 5 ways in which Christians in Kenya show respect to the government.

(5 mks)

  1. State 5 ways in which Christians practice social justice             ( 5 mks)
  2. Give reasons why Christians should obey the law of their country        ( 5 mks)
  3. What role can Christians play in the national elections?             ( 5 mks)
  4. Identify 5 ways through which a Christian can help reduce the practice of corruption in Kenya                                                                                           ( 5 mks)
  5. Outline steps the church is taking to reduce lawlessness in Kenya today

(12 mks)

  1. State 4 ways in which Christians in Kenya show respect for the state

(5 mks)

  1. Give reasons why the church should condemns injustice  in Kenya today

(5 mks)

  1. Give reasons why Christians should vote during general elections
  2. (a) State the rights of citizens in Kenya today             (7 mks)

(b) Give reasons why Christians pay taxes to the government in Kenya (5 mks)

(c) How is the church helping to reduce the rate of crime in Kenya?      (8 mks)

  1. (a) Identify ways through which Christian promote  justice in Kenya today ( 7 mks)

(b) Give reasons why Christians in Kenya are against the death sentence (5 mks)

  1. (a) Give six reasons why it is important to have laws in a country ( 6 mks)

(b) Outline six problems related to maintenance of law and order in Kenya today

(8 mks)

(c) Identify ways in which Christians in Kenya help those who have been released

(6 mks)

  1. Give the role played by the church in the political life of a nation ( 7 mks)
  2. Why is the church opposed to death penalty (capital punishment) as a form of punishment?                                                                   ( 7 mks)
  3. How is the church in Kenya co-operating with the state? ( 8 mks)
  4. State the remedies that can be put in place to  minimize ethnicity in Kenya today

(7 mks)

  1. What are the duties of Kenyan citizen to the country ( 7 mks)
  2. Show how a Christians can contribute to the maintenance of law and order ( 8 mks)
  3. Give reasons that lead people to commit crimes in Kenya                     ( 7 mks)






  1. Identify ways in which a Christian can show respect for life today ( 5 mks)
  2. State 5 reasons why Christians are opposed to deforestation             ( 5 mks)
  3. Why is the church opposed to genetic engineering?             ( 5 mks)
  4. State 5 ways modern science and technology undermined Christian teaching  on respect for human life                                                                              ( 5 mks)
  5. (a) What role has been played by science and technology in evangelization? ( 8 mks)

(b) Identify the effects of pollution on the environment                          (6 mks)


  1. State ways in which Christians can contribute to the conversation  of the government

(8 mks)

  1. State 5 negative effects posed by science and technology on the environment

(5 mks)

  1. Explain how science and technology degrades human dignity ( 6 mks)
  2. What is the Christian understanding of the use of science and technology?

(7 mks)

  1. Explain the importance of science of technology, to our society today ( 6 mks)
  2. Outline 5 advantages which human beings have destroyed the environment









    • Reading the bible to others
    • It is used for instructing new converts
    • Preaching from the bible
    • Used as a textbook in Christians Religious Education in school and colleges
    • Used as a basis  reference book  in general search for knowledge
    • Christian hymns are derived from the bible e.g. psalms, magnificat, benedicts etc
    • Used in taking oaths
    • Alienation from God/ separation from God
    • Pain and sufferings/ hardships
    • Broken relationship among  human beings
    • Embarrassment
    • Mistrust/ enmity among people
    • Death
    • Irresponsibility
    • Punishment from God
    • Pride and arrogance e.g. tower of Babel
    • Leads to being cursed g. Cain
    • The ground was cursed on account of man


    • God is the creator of the universe
    • God sustains the universe
    • Everything that God made is good
    • God is a God of order
    • Human beings were created in the image of God and likeness of God
    • Human beings should observe the Sabbath
    • Human beings were put  in charge of God’s creation
    • Human beings should procreate
    • Human beings should worship God only
    • God is a God of power
    • God is a true God
    • Plants/ animals/ sunshine and rains were made  for the  benefit  of human beings
    • God ordained work/ man was commanded to work
    • The woman was created to be a helper and companion of man
    • Man and woman were complimentary to each other and neither is subordinate to another
    • Marriage is ordained by God

    • It provides moral and spiritual guidance
    • Helps them to discover the will of God
    • Reading the bible is an aspect of Christian worship
    • The bible is the basis Christian doctrines and practices
    • It gives guidance on relationship among human beings
    • It is the word of God
    • Christians come to discover who they are
    • It is a source of consolation to Christians
    • Source of inspiration
    • Source of knowledge
    • Helps in spiritual development and maturity
    • Helps them understand the universe and their relationship to it.
    • Helps them understand the meaning of their lives and relationship to God and to one another.


    • Reading the bible to others
    • It is used for instructing new  converts
    • Preaching/ teaching from the bible
    • Used as a textbook in C.R.E in school and colleges
    • Used as a basic reference  book  in search for knowledge
    • Christian hymns are derived from the bible e.g. psalms, magnificat, benedictus etc.
    • Distribute bibles to individuals/ institutions making them available for  all to read
    • Translation of the bible to vernacular so that people can read/ understand it and their own language
    • Used in taking oath
    • Christians literature  quotes the bible
    • To rule over the rest of creation/ to care/ conserve the environment
    • To be in charge of the fish. The birds and all the animals/ over God’s creation
    • To cultivate the garden and guard it
    • To eat from the fruit of garden
    • To name the animals
    • To obey God’s Commands
    • To get married


  1. (a)
    • To fill the garden and to guard it
    • To multiply
    • To fill the earth
    • To subdue the earth
    • To eat the fruits in the garden
    • To preserve the environment
    • To Obey God’s commands
    • To worship God the creator of life
    • To care for the rest of the creation


  • Work is ordained by God
  • God is a worker
  • All work is important
  • Work should be part of Christian’s life
  • God expects human beings to work
  • Rest is important in work
  • Work should be orderly
  • Work should be done diligently


  • They should treat the rest of the creation with respect
  • Christians should  conserve and preserve the environment
  • Christians can care for God’s creation  like  wild animals by  establishing game reserves  and game parks for them
  • Christians can contribute to scientific discovery of medicine for various diseases by giving monetary donations to relevant institutions
  • Christians can care for God’s creation by opposing deforestation and helping to control soil erosion


  1.      (a) Answer  as in Q. 4


  • God is the creator
  • God is loving- he provided man with a helper
  • God is powerful
  • He is the provider
  • God values his relationship with man
  • God is holy
  • God is orderly and organized
  • God is omnipresent
  • God is moral
  • God is perfect/ good
  • He made the Sabbath man’s resting day


  • Barrenness
  • Epidermis
  • Illness
  • Poverty
  • Madness
  • Drought
  • Physically  and mentally handicapped children
  • Rebellious children
  • Unstable families
  • Environmental disasters
  • Wars


  1. (a) Differences in the two accounts of creation in Genesis 1 and 2


  • The creation order of everything is mentioned in the  first account but  no order is given  in the second account
  • Male and female are created at the same time in the image of God in the first account while  in the second  account man is made  from dust and the woman from  the n man’s rib
  • In the first account creation is out of nothing but in the second account man is made out of dust of the ground as the plants are made to grow out of a garden
  • In the first account human beings are created last while in the second account they are created first
  • In the first account God gives names to what he orders to be while in the second account man is made to give names to all that God created.
  • In the first account human beings are to subdues the earth while in the second account God confines them in the Garden of Eden
  • In the first account creation is completed in six days while in the second there are no number of days gives.
  • God rested on the seventh day in the first account but there is no day of rest in the second account
  • In the first account there is no forbidden tree while in the second account there is
  • In the first account the spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters while in the second account the spirit of God is not mentioned
  • In the first account God appreciated everything as good  while in the second account he said that is  not  good for man to be alone
  • In the first account God creates in unity with the spirit while in the second account he was along
  • In the first account God created human beings for procreation while in the second account they were created for companionship.


(b) The effects of sin from the fall of human beings in Genesis 3: 7- 23

  • Both Adam and Eve realized they were naked
  • They became ashamed
  • They hid from God/ Feared to face God
  • They started blaming each other
  • The serpent was cursed
  • Enemity between the serpent and human beings  developed
  • The woman was to experience pain in child – bearing
  • The man was made to rule over the woman
  • The man was to toil/ sweat in or order to eat
  • The ground was made to produce weeds and thorns
  • Death was introduced in their lives
  • They were chased/ banished from the garden of Eden


(c) Causes of evil in Kenya Today

  • Poverty/ affluence/ wealth
  • Corruption/ greed/ selfishness/ lust/ desire
  • Disobedience/ rebellion
  • Inability to forgive others
  • Influence from media/ foreign culture
  • Wrong choices/ lack of vision/ peer pressure
  • Unemployment
  • Permissiveness/ too much freedom
  • Influence of drug and substance abuse
  • Poor role models
  • Lack of guidance and counseling/ poor upbringing


  1. (a) Reasons why the Bible is referred to as a library
  • It has many books
  • It was written at different times
  • It is written in many styles
  • It is written by different authors/ people
  • It is written in different purposes/ messages levels
  • It is written over a long period/ span of times
  • It is divided into two main parts/ old testament and new testament
  • It is composed of various sections


(b) Effects of the translation of the bible into local languages

  • Many people are able to read the word of God/ improved and literacy of the people
  • It led to development of African/ local languages
  • It made evangelization easier/ growth of church
  • It led to the development of African independent churches
  • Many Africans got converted into Christianity
  • Missionaries were able learn African languages thus making Christianity spread faster
  • Development of printing press/ church bookshops
  • It created job opportunities
  • Africans demanded for leadership community development which contributed to expansion of the church
  • It created more room for further research into  African religious heritage/ beliefs

5 x 1 = 5 mks

(c) Ways through which the church is spreading the word of God in Kenya

  • By use of electronic media
  • By providing bibles through

Publishing/ Christian literature/ magazines

  • By carrying outreach campaigns/ door to door witness
  • Organizing youth

Camp/ seminars/ retreats

  • Helping the need/ building homes for the aged
  • Supporting the teaching of Christian religious Education
  • By encouraging members to visit the sick/ provision  of  medical care
  • By preaching the word/ holding crusades
  • By sending out missionaries/ financing them
  • By organizing choirs/ singing groups
  • 1 and 2 maccabees
  • Baruch
  • Judith
  • Tabit
  • The book of wisdom
  • Ecclesiastics


  • It enlightened the Africans
  • It led to more acceptance of the Gospel as the Africans  were  able to follow the scriptures better
  • It  led to emergence of more churches
  • It increased the desire for formal Education
  • Christianity spread faster as more Africans were able to read the bible
  • There was greater understanding  between the missionaries and the Africans
  • Christianity became a more active religion
  • It increased African participation in Christianity
  • The Africans were able to read and understand the inner meanings  of doctrines  of Christianity
  • It led to the establishment of the independent churches and school
  • It led to the establishment of bible societies.
  • It increased the demand of bible societies
  • It increased to demand for more bibles leading to the establishment of local printing presses.

  • During church services
  • For swearing in courts
  • When swearing in holders of public office
  • As a reference book  in religious studies
  • During ceremonies such as weddings and funerals
  • During crusades


  • Financial problems
  • Communication  problems
  • Communication problems ( language barrier)
  • Hostility e.g. from hostile tribes
  • Harsh climatic conditions
  • Transportation  problems in remote areas
  • Rejection
  • Poor accommodation facilities in some areas
  • People might expect too much from them
  • Lack of co-operation from church leaders
  • Temptations from worldly pleasures

  • Poetic
  • Wise saying
  • Prose and narratives
  • Letters
  • Prayers
  • Legal expressions
  • Songs
  • Prophetic speeches
  • Gospels
  • Philosophical essays


  • Sin was caused by Satan or the devil
  • Sin was brought by lack of satisfaction with self   or jealously
  • Lack of trust in God led to sin
  • Anger led to sin as in the case of Cain
  • Desire by man to be equal to God led to sin
  • Misuse of freedom led to sin as in  the case of Adam  and Eve
  • Selfishness led to sin, Cain killed Abel because he only thought of himself



  • Obedience to God  brings blessings
  • Christians obey God to avoid being punished
  • In order  to have a good relationship with God
  • He alone is God and he alone should be obeyed and worshipped
  • God expects them to do so
  • In order to live in harmony with others

  • Christian literature/ magazines are printed and  read throughout
  • The C.R.E textbooks are used in teaching gospel message throughout the world
  • Christians advertise Christians issues in magazines, newspapers etc
  • Pamphlets and newsletters containing Christians messages are printed and circulated for  people to read
  • Christians messages are illustrated using the  bible atlas
  • Christians terminologies are explained in the bible dictionary for easier understanding
  • Displaying posters with Christians messages
  • Imprinting Christian’s messages in various objects to be read widely.


  • He was created in the image  and likeness  of God
  • Man received  God’s breath
  • Man was given responsibility over the rest of God’s creation
  • Man was given ability to communicate with God
  • Man was created last after everything was created for his use
  • Man has a conscience to differentiate right from wrong


  • Materials not available
  • Not printing machines
  • Libraries were not established
  • Occasionally the writings were destroyed e.g. Jeremiah 36 had to be written again
  • Lack of transport and communication facilities
  • It took along time to complete
  • Source of information was a problem




  • By abandoning the idol worship to serve Yahweh the true God
  • By accepting to leave Haran to unknown land
  • By building altars at Bethel and Schechem in honour of God
  • By accepting circumcision as a  sign of the covenant
  • By sacrificing the animals in the covenant making
  • By accepting to change  their  names Abram to Abraham and Sirai to Sarah
  • By agreeing to sacrifice his  son Isaac
  • By worshipping God
  • By believing in the fulfillment of God’s promises
  • By making a covenant with God


  • He would be a father of great nation
  • He would receive personal blessings
  • His name would be great
  • All those who blessed Abraham would  be blessed
  • All those who cursed Abraham would be cursed, God  would protect Abraham
  • He would be a source of blessings for others
  • Through him all the nations of the earth would  be blessed
  • God would give Abraham and his  descendants the land of Canaan
  • The covenant would  be an everlasting made between him and his descendant
  • He promised Abraham a son / heir through Sarah.


  1. Answers as in question 1


  • A heifer
  • A ram
  • A she- goat
  • A turtle dove
  • A pigeon

  1. (a) The characteristics of the covenant between God and Abraham
  • It was initiated by God
  • It was Solemn/ permanent/ long lasting
  • It was unconditional
  • There were promises to be fulfilled
  • It was sealed through the sacrifice of animals
  • The parties entered it willingly/ it was voluntary
  • It had an outward sign/ circumcision
  • It was between two unequal parties


(b) The importance of God’s covenant with Abraham

  • God established a personal relationship with Abraham because God’s friend
  • It showed that Abraham had faith/ trust in  God
  • It demonstrated Abraham’s obedience to God
  • Abraham was assured of God’s protection
  • God Revealed to Abraham that he would have a son as his heir/ many descendants
  • It confirmed Abraham as God’s choice through whom all nations shall receive  salvation
  • The descendants of Abraham were promised the land of Canaan


(c) Lessons Christian learn from the incident when Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son Isaac

  • They should Obey God
  • They should have faith in God
  • They should be patient and wait upon God/ should not give up
  • They should be prepared to face difficult situations
  • They should be ready to give up everything for God totally committed to God
  • God blesses those who are ready to serve him
  • They should be wise when dealing with issues affecting their lives
  • They should involve family members in worship

  • God told Abraham to offer a sacrifice of animals and birds
  • He asked Abraham to take a heifer, a she- goat, a ram each of them 3 years old, a turtle dove and a young pigeon
  • Abram was to cut the animal’s in halves and place the halves opposite each other
  • He did not cut the birds
  • Abraham kept watch over the sacrifice and chased away the birds that came down to pick the carcasses
  • When the sun was going down he fell into a deep sleep
  • He saw a smocking fire pot and a flaming torch pass between the halves
  • This was a clear indication that God had accepted the sacrifices and made a covenant with Abraham


  • During reconciliation ceremonies between warning tribes or clans
  • In settlement of disputes between husbands and wives, families or friends
  • In compensation for accidents, killing or wounding another person accidentally
  • During oathing ceremonies to keep tribal or clan secrets and promote unity
  • Before warriors went to war
  • When borrowing or hiring property like land
  • During inheritance ceremonies
  • During rites or passage e.g. marriage
  • When choosing leaders
  • During agreement for trade between two tribes or clans


  • Baptism
  • Marriage
  • Oath of loyalty
  • Agreement signed when buying land
  • Treaties between tribes and countries
  • Agreement signed by student
  • Confirmation
  • Vows of a sister/ nun

  • The covenant was more binding than the one made between human beings
  • Abraham established a personal relationship with God
  • It was a confirmation of the previous promises made to Abraham
  • It was the beginning of God’s salvation to mankind
  • By passing through the carcasses God took the responsibility of fulfilling his promises
  • God’s passing in between the carcasses was a sign of protection
  • Christians have become beneficiaries of the promises made to Abraham


  • Covenant with Noah Gen 9
  • Covenant with Israel on Mt Sinai Exodus 24
  • Covenant with David 2 Samuel 7: 14- 16
  • Covenant with Abraham
  • Jeremiah’s new covenant


  • He left his homeland to go to a foreign land
  • He wanted to sacrifice his son Isaac to God
  • He undertook a long dangerous and uncertain journey to unknown land
  • He trusted in God’s promises of a son despite his wife age
  • He did not give up in spite of the hardships he encountered in his journey
  • He entered into a covenant with God
  • He accepted to be circumcised and he also circumcised his servant and his son
  • He worshipped and scarified to God
  • He accepted to change his name and his wife’s name
  • He abandoned idol worship
  • He built two altars at Bethel and Schechem in honour of God

  • It was a sign of Abraham’s obedience and faithfulness together with that of his descendants
  • It was a sign of the bond between God, Abraham and his descendant
  • It was a physical badge of Abraham descendants
  • It was a sign that Abrahams and his descendants  had entered into an everlasting covenant  with God
  • It was a sign of the fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham and his descendants
  • By accepting circumcision the Israelites showed respect and obedience to their forefather Abraham
  • It was a sign of belonging to the Jewish community
  • It showed that Abraham and his descendant had accepted God as their only God


  • God is a provider, he provided the ram
  • God demands obedience from his people
  • God values human life that is why he did not allow Abraham to sacrifice his son
  • God sometimes tests the faith of his people
  • God blesses those who obey and trust him
  • God is faithful to his promises



  • God told Abraham to leave his country, hi people and his father’s household to go to a land God would show him
  • God promised to make Abraham into a great nation and bless him
  • God also promised to make Abrahams name great to bless those blessed Abraham and to curse those who cursed him
  • God promised through Abraham  all people on earth would be blessed
  • Abraham left as God had told him
  • He was accompanied by Lot his nephew and Sarai his wife
  • He took with him all the possessions he had accumulated and the slaves he had acquired in Haran.
  • He set out and arrived  at the land of Canaan


  • Obedience to God is important
  • Faith in God is rewarding
  • God took the initiative to repair the broken relationship with man by calling Abraham showing his loving nature
  • Faith is best seen in actions
  • God always works through men of faith
  • God communicates with people
  • One’s background cannot prevent God from working through and with an individual




  • God is holy
  • God is powerful/ almighty
  • God demands obedience
  • God choose/ elects people to work for him or to be his spokesmen
  • God is faithful to his promises
  • God controls  the earth
  • God speaks to his people
  • God reveals himself through nature
  • God is awesome/ should be feared
  • God is imminent/ everywhere
  • God is just judge
  • God is Transcendent/ beyond human knowledge
  • God is worthy of worship
  • He is a God of freedom/ liberates
  • God is caring/ loving/ compassionate or merciful


  • God appeared to the Israelites to reassure them that they were not alone, he was present among them
  • God reminded them that he was the God who brought them out of Egypt
  • God gave them the ten commandments to guide them in their relationships with him and with one another
  • He entered a covenant relationship  with them in which he promised that they would be his special people and he would be their God
  • He forgives those who repent after worshipping the golden calf
  • After Moses broke with the tablets of law God replaced them with new ones
  • He promised to be with them always to preserve them and to make them prosperous ( exodus 32: 34)
  • After the Israelites broke the covenant by worshipping the golden calf he renewed the covenant with them
  • God continues to provide for their needs

  • An altar was built at the foot of Mt Sinai supported with twelve pillars to represent the tribes of Israel
  • Young men sacrifices some oxen
  • Moses took half of the blood of the animals and put it in basins
  • Half of the blood was thrown to the altar
  • Moses read the book of the covenant to the Israelites
  • The people made a promise that they would obey God
  • Moses took the blood in the bowls and threw it on the temple
  • Moses said “This is the blood of the covenant which the lord made with you”.


  • Inquisitiveness
  • Caring/ cautiousness
  • Respectful
  • Patience
  • Courage/ bravery/ fearlessness
  • Consistence/ reliability
  • Humility
  • Faith/ trust
  • Wisdom/ intelligence
  • Obedience


  • God fears/ responds to the cry of his people
  • God uses events to reveal himself e.g. burning bush
  • God is holy/ pure
  • God appoints people to perform certain tasks
  • God does not give people impossible tasks
  • God is powerful/ almighty
  • God punishes the enemies of his people
  • God is faithful to his promises
  • God is omnipresent
  • God is beyond human understanding/ transcendent
  • God is omniscient/ all knowing


  • Thunder
  • Lighting
  • Cloud
  • Fire
  • Earthquake
  • Sound of trumpet
  • He spoke to Moses
  • Smoke


  • Humility- he removed shoes
  • Courage – he went to see the burning bush
  • Faith/ trust
  • Love/ concern/ care/ mercy/ pity
  • Honest
  • Obedience
  • Reference/ respect/ honour
  • Service/ call/ God chooses anybody
  • Inquisitiveness/ curiosity
  • Persistence/ patience
  • Just/ punishes injustice

  • Through animal sacrifices
  • Through offerings
  • By observing religious rituals
  • By keeping the Sabbath day
  • By keeping/ observing the ten commandments
  • Through prayer/ song/ dance
  • By commemorating God’s saving deeds or religious festivals
  • By regarding God as their  king/ ruler and by  obeying earthly kings who were regarded as special representative of God
  • By building places of worship where they prayed to God/ listened to his teachings
  • By following the teachings of the prophets
  • Honouring the temple as a sacred place where the Ark of  the covenant was kept
  • By respecting the Leviticus priests


  • To obey what God commanded them
  • Not to make any treaty with those who lived in the land where they were going
  • To destroy their altars/ smash their sacred stones/ cut down their Asherah
  • Not to worship any other God
  • To keep the feast of unleavened  bread
  • To rest on the seventh day
  • Not to intermarry with the foreigners
  • Not to make idols
  • To offer to God the first  of their crops
  • To dedicate all their born male children and first born male of their domestic animals to God

  • The ten plagues that God brought on the Egyptians
  • Separating the waters of the Red Sea
  • Killing the Egyptians during the crossing of the Red Sea
  • Provision of manna  for the Israelites to eat
  • Provision of Quails for the Israelites to eat
  • God gave the Israelites victory over the Amalekites a hostile desert tribe.
  • God led the Israelites during the night with a pillar of fire.
  • God gave them the snake, curving to save them from snake bites.
  • During the making of the covenant at Sinai manifested himself physically


  • Moses was afraid to go face Pharaoh who wanted to kill him having killed an Egyptian
  • He doubted whether the Israelites would accept or believe him.
  • He lacked adequate knowledge of the God  of Israel
  • He lacked confident in himself
  • He was not eloquent in speech
  • Moses doubted the power of God  and his  mighty  works that would convince pharaoh


  • 5th commandment “ Honor your father and mother”
  • 6th commandment “You shall not kill”.
  • 7th commandment “You shall not commit adultery”.
  • 8th commandment “ You shall not steal”
  • 9th commandment “ You shall not false witness against your neighbour”
  • 10th commandment “ You shall not covet your neighbours property or wife”


  • When the Israelites saw the Egyptians  army  following  them  they panicked  and turned  against  Moses
  • Lack of food and water in the wilderness that they had to fight against e.g. the Amalekites
  • Moses had trouble  uniting the people
  • The people disobeyed Moses e.g. by worshipping the golden calf
  • He had to deal with other dangers such as those posed by wild animals e.g. snakes
  • He had to lead the people in traveling through unfamiliar territories and routes
  • Moses had difficulties settling disputes among the people
  • He had trouble managing the people who were fatigued
  • The Israelites were afraid of the might of the Canaanites
  • Moses was a stammerer and he had trouble communicating
  • He lacked confidence in himself
  • The Israelites angered Moses by breaking the covenant

  1. (a) Activities carried out  by the Israelites on the night of the Passover
  • Every man chose a lamb or a young goat for his family
  • The chosen animal was slaughtered
  • Blood was put on the two door post of the house
  • The slaughtered animal was to be roasted
  • The Israelites ate the unleavened bread/ bitter herbs
  • They ate while fully dressed for the journey in a hurry
  • They stayed indoors till morning
  • They burnt all the leftovers of the meal ( 5 mks)


(b)Why exodus is important to the Israelites

(i)        It marked the end of their suffering/ oppressing in Egypt

(ii)       It signed that they were a special nation/ chosen by God

(iii)      It was a fulfillment of the promises God had made to Abraham

(iv)       It proved that God was more powerful than other gods/ supreme

(v)        It showed / proved to them that Moses was a chosen leader of God

(vi)       The exodus united the people of Israel as a nation

(vii)      It made them to understand the nature of God

(viii)     It taught them God needed obedience from human beings

  • They received the ten commandments which guided them in their relationships

(5 x 2 = 10 mks)


(c)        How Christian show their respect to God

(i)         They set aside a day of worship

(ii)        Set aside holy places of worship

(iii)       They do not mention God’s name in vain

(iv)       They pray to him

(v)        Live exemplary lives/ role models

(vi)       Giving offerings/ tithes

(vii)      Praising him for wonders

(viii)     Taking care of the environment

(ix)       Looking after the needy

(x)        Preaching/ spreading his word


  • The slaughtering of the Passover lamb by the Israelites
  • The painting of the door posts of the houses of the Israelites with the blood of the lamb
  • The eating of the meat of the lamb with unleavened bread and bitter herbs
  • The killing of the Egyptian first born by the  angle of death
  • The Israelites knelt and worshipped God
  • The wailing/ mourning by the Egyptians
  • The Pharaoh allowed the Israelites to leave Egypt
  • The Israelites began the exodus from Egypt to Canaan.


  • Both are annual events
  • Both involved sacrifices i.e. lamb  and Jesus
  • In both cases there is movement from slavery to freedom
  • Both incidences are important historical events
  • Both are central points to belief and worship of Judaism and Christianity respectively
  • They both point towards God’s saving power
  • In each case there is a command to follow and remember the  occasion
  • In both point towards God’s saving power
  • In each case there is a command to follow and remember the occasion
  • In both God uses an individual to intervene

  • The Israelites were his chosen people
  • He protected them from their enemies in the wilderness
  • He chose good leaders for the Israelites and helped them rule and control the people during the exodus
  • The Israelites were victorious in war against those who attack them
  • The lord chose priests for them  who became intermediaries between them and the lord
  • Yahweh remained their only God


  • When they doubted God before crossing the red sea
  • They complained when there was no food
  • The Israelites made a golden calf and worshipped it
  • They complained to Moses when there was no water
  • The Israelites broke the covenant easy of life hence did not obey  God
  • When some people Kept food  overnight as opposed to the command of the lord


  • He accepted to remove his sandals when ordered by God  during his call
  • He accepted to perform the plagues in Egypt to deliver the Israelites despite  the difficulties he  would  face
  • He accepted to perform the plagues in Egypt to convince Pharaoh  to release the Israelites
  • Moses led the Israelites across the Red Sea as commanded  by God
  • Moses prepared for the Passover as commanded  by  God
  • He provided the Israelites with proper instructions on how to collect food offered by God as God commanded him
  • Moses wrote the defeat of the Amalekites on the scroll as God Commanded him
  • He prepared for the Sinai covenant as God commanded and allowed the instructions given by God


  • They worshipped idols
  • Committing adultery
  • Bearing false witness against others
  • Coveting other people’s property
  • Practicing syncretism
  • False swearing of kings in public to subjects  in God’s name which are  not fulfilled
  • Marrying foreign wives who brought idol worshipping in Israel
  • They worked on the Sabbath day

  • Because he is faithful to his promises
  • God wanted to guide them in how to relate with them
  • God wanted a personal  relationship  with the Israelites  as the chosen race
  • God wanted them to remember that he was powerful  and had  rescued them  to come and  worship him on Mt Sinai
  • God wanted to guide them on how to relate with each other
  • God expected that the Israelites would obey and have faith in him
  • He wanted to enable the Israelites to enjoy his blessings
  • God wanted to provide guidance to the people as they entered Canaan


  • The Israelites understood God as more powerful than the Egyptians  gods
  • God is faithful as he fulfilled the promises to Abraham
  • God is a provider – He provided them with food ( manna) and water
  • God is loving and kind
  • God is merciful
  • God is slow to anger
  • God is just – he punishes those who disobeyed him
  • God is jealous and does not tolerate rivals
  • God is holy
  • God is a protector
  • God is omnipresent
  • God works though men of faith


  • Laws helps Christians to keep off idolatry
  • Laws encourage sexual uprightness
  • Laws help one to respect other peoples property
  • The laws help Christians to avoid telling lies and accusing other people falsely
  • Obedience to God’s Laws enables Christians to respect life and not to take  it away
  • By obeying laws Christians escape God’s judgement
  • By obeying laws Christians receive blessings  from God


  • Moses was attending the flock of his father- in- law near Mt Horeb
  • He saw a burning bush
  • The bush was on fire but it was not getting consumed
  • Moses drew near to see why the bush was not getting consumed
  • God called him from within the bush
  • Moses was told not to draw near and remove his scandals because  he was standing on a holy ground
  • God told Moses that he was the God and his father Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
  • Moses hid his father face because he was afraid to look at God
  • God told Moses that he had seen the suffering of his people and had heard their cry.
  • He told Moses of his intention to send him to Egypt to set the Israelites free
  • Moses was reluctant and tried to give reasons not to go to Egyptg. he was a stammerer.
  • God promised to be with him and empowered him to confront Pharaoh
  • God told Moses to take Aaron his brother to be spokesman





  • Can cause suffering e.g. hunger, sickness, death
  • Can cause hatred/ bitterness among people
  • Cab cause disrespect for those who practice injustice
  • Can lead to rebellion/ disobedience/ coup de tat/ demonstrations
  • Can lead to hypocrisy/ lying
  • Can lead to international isolation
  • Can lead to civil war/ fighting
  • Can cause all sorts of crimes  g. murders, assassinations/ rape/ robbery

  • He stopped the Israelites from going to worship in Jerusalem
  • He made golden bulls/ idols
  • He made the people offer sacrifices to the bulls
  • He made Dan and Bethel centers of worship
  • He made places of worship  in hill top or  shrines
  • He chose priests who did  not  belong to the family of  Levi
  • He instituted religious  festivals unlike those found in Judah
  • He himself worshipped idols



  • The people persecuted  the  prophets  of Yahweh
  • The king led the people in idol worship e.g. Jeroboam/ people worshipped idols
  • They intermarried with the neighbouring  communities which was against God’s command
  • The people refused to repent when given the  opportunity/ were insincere
  • The rulers/ kings did nothing to return the people to the covenant way of life
  • The kings built temple for idol worship
  • They formed political alliances with neighbouring nations instead of trusting in Yahweh totally
  • The kings propagated injustice where the poor were denied justice e.g. Ahab and Yahweh totally.
  • Sexual immorality/ the people engaged in immoral activities at the temple
  • They sold fellow Israelites into slavery which was forbidden by Yahweh
  • The judges were corrupt/ they took bribes thus  the  innocent were wrongly judged


  • Destroyed the altars of idols gods
  • Set examples to the people by repenting their sins when warned by the prophets of wrong doing
  • Killing the priest of Baal e.g. Jehu
  • Restoring temple worship e.g. David
  • Renewal of the covenant/ they led the people in renewing their allegiance to God e.g. Jehu and Josiah
  • Repaired the temple/ they made God’s dwelling place presentable
  • Destroyed the bronze serpent which Moses had made during the exodus for the Israelites had begun worshipping it they burnt incense to it
  • They did not form political alliance with neighbouring kings thus demonstrating to the people that they completely trusted in God


  • Anointed the first two kings of Israel ( Saul and David)
  • Judging the people
  • Foretold God’s plan for the future
  • Reminded the people of God’s ways
  • Acted as a mediator between God and people
  • Condemned social injustice or corruption
  • Brought to the king’s attention their mistakes
  • Condemned idolatry
  • Offered sacrifices

  • They shed innocent blood
  • They were oppressive of their rule (introduced, heavy taxation and forced labour)
  • They married foreign wives
  • They built temples/ shrines for idols
  • They were unfaithful/ dishonest
  • They did not tell the people who was
  • They were disobedient to God
  • They did not rule according to the law of Moses
  • They did not listen to the prophets
  • They worshipped both God and idols
  • They took part in Pagan feasts
  • They sought alliance with neighbouring states instead of relying on God


  • He became impatient and offered sacrifices to God at Gilgal instead  of  waiting for prophet Samuel
  • He ignored advice from God’s prophet
  • He discovered God by failing to observe the rule of herem
  • He plotted to kill David
  • He consulted a medium
  • He committed suicide
  • He lost his faith in God


  • The sons were corrupt and took bribes
  • They wanted a warrior who could lead them to war
  • They wanted a visible king/  whom they could  see and touch
  • They wanted to be like other nations
  • They wanted a stable political government ruled by law and  order


  • He developed trade with the neighbouring countries
  • Be built up a strong  army
  • He brought the temple for God
  • He bought the Ark of the covenant to the temple of Jerusalem
  • He built himself a palace that took 13 years to be completed
  • He composed 3000 proverbs and 1005 songs
  • He was a shrewd diplomat
  • He organized a civil administration
  • He became famous because of his wisdom

  • He brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem
  • He made Jerusalem a holy city where  Israelites from  all over the land came for important religious  occasions
  • He composed psalms which were used  in worship  by  the Israelites
  • He showed respect to the prophet of Yahweh and listened to their messages
  • He wanted to build a temple for God
  • When he made mistakes he asked for Yahweh’s forgiveness
  • He Constantly sort God’s guidance


  • The Israelites would forget God as their unseen king or ruler
  • Their loyalty would be to the Kings  instead of Yahweh
  • The Israelites would be influenced by other nations and forget covenant  with God
  • Human kings would rule according to their human character
  • Kingship would bring a new form of authority and rule and new social system
  • Hereditary kingship would lead to oppression and dictatorship
  • The Israelites would lose their identity as a covenant people


  • He was chosen by God
  • He received public anointing at Hebron where he  signed a treaty with the elders
  • He received the spirit of God from the time he was  anointed
  • He was a brilliant military commander
  • He captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites
  • He brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem
  • He expressed great faith in God
  • He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel though conquests
  • He had remarkable leadership qualities
  • He was a shrewd administrator who chose wise elders and counselors


  • The temple symbolized the presence of God amongst the people
  • Worship was done in the temple on the Sabbath day
  • Animals for sacrifice were brought from the temple
  • It was a house of prayer
  • Sacrifices to God were offered in the temple
  • It served as an academic center for the Israelites
  • Purification and dedications rites were performed in the temple
  • Adjacent to the temple was the tribunal where  criminals  were tried  by the teachers  of the law
  • It also served as a commercial center where goods were sold and brought
  • It also housed the Ark  of the covenant

  • They acted as God’s prophets
  • They offered prayers and sacrifices on behalf of the people
  • They settled disputes among the people
  • They led the Israelites to war against their enemies
  • Some like Samuel were given the role of anointing kings


  • God would make David’s name great
  • Go would give the Israelites a place to settle in
  • God would raise on heir  from David’s lineage
  • God would let David’s Son  build a temple  for  him
  • God promised to establish a  kingdom that  would  last forever


  • Courage
  • Faith
  • Gratitude
  • Loyalty
  • Justice
  • Wisdom
  • Humility
  • Kindness
  • He married foreign wives
  • He loved himself more than God  by building  his  palace for 13 years and the temple for only 7 years
  • He worshipped idol gods
  • He did not observe the covenant of brotherhood as he taxed the Israelites heavily
  • He built worship places for idol gods
  • He signed trade and marriage agreement with his neighbours
  • He disobeyed the instructions of his father David that they should rely  solely  on God
  • He subjected the Israelites to forced labour
  • He murdered his half – brother Adonijah

  • Othiniel
  • Ehud
  • Samson
  • Gideon
  • Abimelech
  • Deborah
  • Samuel
  • Barat
  • Shamga


  • Inability to worship together
  • Idolatry
  • Strain in battles
  • Inferiority complex
  • They admired their neighbours






  • Ahab marrying jezebel
  • Unfaithfulness of Israelites to the way of the covenant
  • Worship of idols
  • Syncretism developed
  • Persecution of Yahweh prophets by Jezebel
  • Contest was to prove that Yahweh was a true God


  • Transition from Pastoral life to agriculture life made them resort to Canaanite gods  of fertility
  • Intermarriage between the Israelites and other people brought idol worship to Israel
  • When the kingdoms of Israel and Judah  separated following the death of Solomon

Jeroboam established two new places of worship at Bethel and Dan for the people of Northern kingdom to worship

  • When the Israelites were defeated in wars by other nations they felt Yahweh had forsaken them. This made them seek consolation from the Canaanite gods
  • The Israelites forsook the covenant that they made with Yahweh at Mt Sinai
  • When they settled in Canaan syncretism  developed where they would worship Yahweh’s when it was  necessary and worship idols  when it was necessary
  • When they took over Canaan, they found elaborate temples which were built for the Canaanite gods and instead of destroying them. They continued to use them in the worship of Yahweh
  • In order to strengthen political alliances with the neighbours some kings of Israel named foreign princesses who brought with them the worship of other gods to Israel.

  • It was basically a nature religion or a cosmic religion
  • It was polytheistic i.e. it had a plurality of gods and goddesses
  • Rituals were performed to ensure continued fertility  and  the well being of the community
  • There was the chief god from whom all other gods sought  support
  • Both human and animal sacrifices were offered to God  and goddesses


  • There was widespread idolatry and apostasy among the Israelites
  • There was corruption and injustice as people rejected the covenant way of life
  • There was religious persecution and  hostility ( Jezebel had put to death some prophets of Yahweh) and those who escaped  with their lives went  into hiding
  • The people had abandoned they  worship  of Yahweh and  practiced syncretism hence turning away from the covenant  way of life
  • He faced opposition and even threats in his life from  Jezebel and Ahab
  • There were false prophets of Baal and Asherah who were brought to Israel by Jezebel to promote false religion
  • He had to face Ahab and challenge  him for misleading the people
  • Convincing the people that it is Yahweh who was the true God
  • Had to prove to Israel that he was the true prophet of Yahweh
  • He had to endure hardships in wilderness


  1. Jezebel swore to kill Elijah the way he had killed the prophets of Baal.
  2. Elijah got afraid and fled to Beersheba after killing the prophet Baal.
  3. He was discouraged and he felt lonely.
  4. He got depressed and prayed for death
  5. He walked for 40 days and night to Mt. Horeb
  6. When he arrived at Mt. Horeb Elijah was weak.
  7. He mistook God’s nature. God rebuked him.
  8. Elijah doubted God’s victory over Baal
  9. He had to convince people that he was a true prophet of Yahweh.
  10. After pronouncing the 3 year drought he lived in fear.
  11. He was accused falsely by Ahab as the troublemaker of Israel;
  12. Elijah underestimated his ability in bringing people back to Yahweh.
  13. He had to defend his religion to prove that Yahweh was a true God


  • Syncretism – mixing idolatry and the worship of Yahweh.
  • Building temples for idol gods e.g. King Ahab
  • Worshipping of false gods.
  • Offering sacrifices to the idol gods. (both human and animal sacrifices)
  • Performing rituals to ensure continued fertility and the well being of the community.
  • They were human sacrifices
  • There was temple/cult prostitution
  • Images and symbols were used to represent the gods and goodness’s.

  1. The nature of the Canaanite religion.
  • It was based on nature/cosmic/cyclic/changes in seasons.
  • It was polytheistic/comprised of many gods and goddesses.
  • Symbols/idols/images were made to represent each god/goddess.
  • Temple prostitution was part of the worship of gods and goddesses.
  • Human and animal sacrifices were made to the gods/goddesses.
  • F festivals and feasts were celebrated in honour of the gods and goddesses.
  • Rituals were performed to ensure continued fertility and well being of the community.
  • There were prophets and prophetesses for each god and goddess.
  • Each god and goddess played a specific role in the community.
  • There was a chief god and goddess.
  • Temples/shrines/High places of worship of Gods/goddesses.


(b)        Ways in which King jeroboam contributed to religious schism between

Judah and Israel.

(i) He made two golden calves and placed one at Bethel and another at Dan to represent Yahweh.

(ii) He set up two rival places of worship an ignored Jerusalem.

(iii) He made the Israelites to offer sacrifices to the golden calves

(vi) He chose priests from ordinary families to serve at worship centers

(v) He burnt incense at altars of the idols

(vi) He instituted religious festivals in the months of  his choice.


(c)        Life skills Christians need to fight corruption in Kenya today

(i)         Critical thinking/ creative thinking

(ii)        Decision making

(iii)       Conflict resolution

(iv)       Tolerance, assertiveness, self – esteem

(v)        Self- awareness, empathy

(vi)       Effective communication


  1. (a) The contest between prophet Elijah and prophets  of Baal at mount

                        Carmel (1 kings 18: 19- 40)

(i)         Prophet Elijah asked Ahab to assemble all the people at Mount Carmel

(ii)        The king summoned all the people including the prophets of Baal to

Mount Carmel

(iii)       Elijah told the people to choose between worshiping God and Baal

(iv)       He suggested to the people that two bulls be brought and each party to

offer the sacrifice to their god.

(v)        He challenges them and said whichever party will make their God to offer the sacrifice will be the true God.

(vi)       Elijah mocked them/ asked them to shout louder to their God

(vii)      They prayed, cut themselves with knives until they bled but Baal did not answer them

(viii)     Elijah asked the people to come near him as he repaired the alter of God.

(ix)       He placed the Sacrifice on the alter and asked the people to pour water on it.

(x)        Fire consumed the sacrifices/ the wood/ stones/ the water/ dust around it

(xi)       The people threw themselves on the ground and worshiped the lord as the

true God

(xii)      Elijah killed the prophets of Baal

7 x 1 = 7 mks



(b)        Conditions that made it difficult for Prophet Elijah to stop idolatry in



(i)         The existence of false promises to the Israelites

(ii)        King Ahab had allowed his Phoenician wife to bring the worship of the

false gods and goddess

(iii)       Jezebel had persecution of true prophets of God by Jezebel

(iv)       King Ahab had allowed the building of temples/ high places for the

worship of Baal

(v)        The Canaanite religion had a strong influence on the Israelites

(vi)       The king participated in idol/ worship

(vii)      The idol gods could be seen/ touched so they appeared real

4 x 2 = 8 mks

(c)        Qualities of Prophet Elijah that a Christian leader should posses

  • Truthfulness
  • Courage
  • Faithfulness/ trust
  • Kindness
  • Loving/ caring
  • Honesty
  • Responsible
  • Loyalty/ obedience
  • Respectful
  • Prayerfulness


  • God is alive
  • God is a true God
  • God punishes evil doers
  • God is Holy
  • God keeps promises
  • God forgives
  • God answers prayers


  • Tribalism
  • Bribery
  • Cheating in business
  • Stealing
  • Robbery with violence
  • Dishonesty
  • Misuse of public property or funds


  • Thunder on Mt. Sinai
  • Earthquake at Mt. Sinai
    fire at Mt. Sinai
  • Soft whisper of voice
  • Furious wind that spilt the hills and scattered the rocks
  • Fierce fire to consume the burnt offering and water during the Mt. Carmel contest


  • They coveted Naboth’s vineyard
  • They bore false witness against Naboth
  • They killed Naboth
  • They organized and took Naboth’s ancestral witness



  • It breaks the covenant way of life of the Israelites
  • It against the ten commandment
  • It is a form of disobedience to God
  • It promotes immorality like temple prostitution
  • It is the worship of non-living thins which belittles and degrades God
  • It promoted falsehood in the society
  • People were concerned with external practices instead of internal change.
  • Religion becomes commercialized
  • It promotes false prophesy among people


  • Like Elijah church leaders should condemn evils being committed in the society.
  • Leaders should use their positions to uplift the poor and the weak instead of exploiting them
  • Christians should live a life of prayers
  • Christians need to be very honest in giving information that affects others
  • Christians must not give false information at anytime in court when acting as witnesses.
  • Christians should live free of corruption
  • Christians should be persistent like Elijah in the struggle for justice.
  • Christians should advocate for the rights of the week and the poor and speak against any form of oppression.



Hostility from King Ahab who took him as a trouble maker Israel

  • Hatred against the prophets of Yahweh promoted by Jezebel
  • Hatred against the prophets of Yahweh promoted by Jezebel
  • He killed the prophets of Baal after the Mt. Carmel incident.  This created hostility from Jezebel
  • He fought against corruption which made him clash with Ahab’s family
  • After declaring the drought God commanded him to run away, turn eastwards and hide in the ravine.


  • Yahweh is a powerful God who controls the forces of nature
  • God is a forgiving god who forgave the Israelites when they repented.
  • Yahweh is the provider as he provided Elijah with fire to consume the sacrifice
  • God is a jealous God who will not share his honour with any other being
  • God is a true God as Baal failed to answer prayers but God did


  • Devil worship
  • Sexual immorality
  • Alcohol and drug abuse
  • Greed for money
  • Greed for power
  • Practice of witchcraft, magic sorcery and divination
  • Education
  • Career and employment
  • Love of popular culture


  • Critical thinking
  • Creative thinking
  • Decision making







  1. (a)
  • Mark the change from one stage to another e.g. childhood to adulthood
  • Provide opportunity for the initiates to take their new duties/responsibilities and privileges
  • Give the initiates a feeling of new/higher status in the community
  • Bring families/communities /clans together to celebrate
  • Give the initiates’ identity /a sense of belonging as they are initiated into a community e.g. age groups/secrete society/council elders.



  • They offer guidance and counseling to the candidates
  • They give candidates instructions in sex Education
  • They encourage the candidate to face the operation with courage
  • They give moral/physical support during the operation
  • Acts as a link between the candidates and their families
  • They play the role of a mentor to the initiated
  • They ensure that the initiated are protected/well cared for


  • Foreign religions e.g. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism
  • Foreign cultures and values
  • Western Education Plus Agencies High cost of living/inflation
  • New forms of government and politics
  • Science and technology
  • Urbanization
  • Improved infrastructure
  • Mass media


  • (a)
  • They explain the origin of people
  • They explain the occupation and culture of the people
  • Justify the ownership of the tribal land
  • They explain the origin of death
  • They describe the original status of God and human beings
  • They explain some religious status of God and human beings
  • They give people identity
  • They entertain people.
  • They are basis of unity
  • They explain the origin of some practices customs and traditions
  • They educate people hence help in preserving culture and traditions.


  • Initiation has been handed down from the ancestors who are custodians of the tradition
  • Rejection of the rite of initiation may lead to punishment from the ancestors
  • In some communities a person cannot be buried before circumcision if he is a grown up for fear of him being rejected in the spirit world
  • The shelling of blood during initiation incorporates the living and the dead/ unites the initiates with the ancestors.
  • The shedding of blood during initiation incorporates the living and the dead/unites the initiates with the ancestors
  • It is only after initiation that a person is allowed to procreate so that after death there will be offspring to inherit him to remember him
  • Initiation songs depict past heroes and ancestors who withstood the operation without fear.
  • The medicine/ herbs used on the wound is said to belong to the ancestors who have power to heal
  • Offences committed before initiation must be confessed before initiation lest one bleeds to death due to the wrath of the ancestors
  • Gifts to the initiates were to please the ancestors and were the sign of welcome to the full community which is composed of the living the dead and the unborn
  • Prayers are made through the ancestors for the protection and blessings of the initiates.
  • All members of the community participate in the initiation ceremony- the living, the dead and the unborn
  • The initiates learn the stories of heroes so that they can emulate them
  • Initiation is a stage closer to death which leads to life after death
  • Ancestors are consulted regarding the initiation rite
  • In some communities the initiates acquire names of ancestors after initiation to honour them as a sign the ancestors are still alive represented

(c)        They should pour libations to them

  • Sacrifice and give offering to them
  • Name their children after the ancestors
  • Offer venerations and pray through them
  • Should respect them
  • Remember them by inviting them to social functions  and invoking their names
  • Teach their children about them
  • Obey them by carrying out their wishes
  • Appease them
  • Build shrines for them


  • To thank God for the good he has done for them e.g. giving rain, children, harvest and health
  • To ask for God’s forgiveness and mercy
  • To ask for help from God during difficult times e.g. during drought, famine
  • During the making of the  covenants e.g. peace covenants, clan disputes so that God can be a witness



  • Members of the family especially children can be denied food for sometime so that they do not repeat the wrong
  • Beating/ caning/ whipping/ pinching/ pulling of ears especially for the children when they disobey the older members of the family.
  • Wife beating if wives disobey husbands
  • For small mistakes a person can be reprimanded by the elders/ given a warning not to repeat the mistake.
  • For committing a crime that was embarrassing to the relatives/ age mates a person could be disowned by parents, the clan or the age group.
  • Payment of fine in form of a bull/ goat/ sheep/ a cock/ bear
  • An errant member can be defamed through songs that were composed to ridicule him/ her
  • By being given unpleasant nicknames which reflected the wrong the person has done.
  • Sometimes relatives refuse to name children after   errant members
  • An errant member can be summoned to appear before the council  of elders/ age- groups/ elders
  • An errant member can be served with banning orders e.g. cannot join such social functions as dances/ feast initiation ceremonies etc.

  • One must have been initiated into adulthood
  • Must  be married
  • Must be able to afford the membership fee
  • Should be exemplary in dealing with the family/ community affairs
  • Should be of good conduct/ earned respect in  the community
  • Should have grown up children should be of the right/ specifies age
  • Should have the support of other elders
  • Should go through the eldership rituals


  • So that they could receive common teaching values
  • For proper monitoring of their healing
  • To facilitate proper feeding for all
  • So they could undergo certain rituals before returning home
  • It gave them opportunity to socialize
  • They learned to live  as brothers and this cemented age- group relationships
  • It made it easier to provide them  with guidance and counseling
  • So that they could  learn the secrets of their community
  • They were taught facts of life
  • To keep away from members of the opposite sex and children
  • To teach them to be independent


  • They visited the bereaved, stayed  with them and gave them moral support
  • Consoled them through singing, dancing, praying and giving words of comfort
  • Contributed food  and other material needs and gave them moral support
  • Helped  them by performing certain duties for them e.g. cooking for them
  • Helped in preparing the grave/ digging and burying
  • They attended the funeral the funeral to give the departed a good send off.
  • Helped in preparing the body for burial
  • Informed friends and relatives about the death.
  • Made a Eulogy to praise or to testify  the deceased’s contribution to the community
  • Participated in rituals/ ceremonies performed by the bereaved family e.g. slaughtering, eating, dancing and cleansing


  • During reconciliation ceremonies
  • During marriage
  • After initiation
  • When preparing for a raid
  • When deciding on cases/ settling disputes
  • When a person is being adopted into a family or clan or tribe
  • When a person was being initiated into a secret society
  • During installation of leaders ( oath of office)
  • When a community was threatened members took  oath to remain united against the enemy
  • During the making of peace treaties
  • When buying land
  • During some naming ceremonies

  • Promote the youth into adulthood
  • Providing a learning forum for the youth to know the society’s ideals
  • Used as a method of preserving the society’s cultural heritage
  • Created a strong relationship between the initiates and the sponsor
  • Enhances the bond of friendship among the initiates
  • It made  one full  member of the community/ created a sense of belonging
  • One was a given right to own property and to marry.


  • To ensure secrecy of information known
  • As a binding symbol of members of the community/ a sign  of covenant
  • To ensure compliance to the social norms and disciplines
  • To find out the truth  of the matter in question
  • To deter people from telling  lies
  • To link the  living with the dead or the  ancestors
  • To prepare the parties for serious tasks
  • To make people remain loyal to each other/ good etc


  • Sex education was given to the youth to instill discipline  and responsibility
  • The youth were sensitized on the consequences or irresponsible sexual behavior
  • Sex before marriage was prohibited
  • Virginity was highly valued
  • Girls who became pregnant before marriage were severely punished
  • Young  men who impregnated girls before marriage were also punished
  • Parents especially the mothers were held responsible for their daughters conduct. They therefore closely watched their movement
  • During occasions such as dances, young people were supervised so that they did not misbehave
  • There was physical separation of the sexes males and females lived in separate houses
  • There were taboos on sexual relationships each other and maintain their dignity and honour

  • Boys and girls choose their mates freely without interference from  parents
  • Parents could make a choice when the children were young
  • Parents of a young  man approached the parents of a young  lady and asked for her  hand in marriage
  • An intermediary could be used
  • A girl could be waylaid by  the Youngman and dragged to his house
  • A senior wife could choose another wife for her husband
  • A brother of a  dead man could inherit his wife
  • In some communities rich men could be  given wives as gifts
  • In other communities a debtor could give his daughter as a wife to pay a debt


  1. (a) The changes that have taken place in the rite of initiation in Kenya today
    1. Female circumcision/ clitoridectomy has been discouraged
    2. Circumcision can be done at any age/ time
    3. Some communities take their children to hospital for circumcision
    4. Education of the initiates is offered by persons/ bodies other than traditional sponsors
    5. Some initiation practices like removal of teeth/ tattooing of the body are being discouraged/ discarded
    6. Some communities have minimized/ stopped elaborate ceremonies/ rituals associated with initiation
    7. People are being discouraged from using the same circumcision instruments
    8. The role of age set/ age group is fading away in some communities
    9. Initiation practices are no longer a test of courage/ bravery

(b)        Moral values/ taught to the youth during initiation to adulthood in T.A.C

  1. Hospitality/ generosity/ kindness
  2. Honesty
  3. Integrity
  4. Tolerance/ perseverance/ endurance
  5. Chastity/ faithfulness/ self – control
  6. Loyalty/ obedience
  7. Respect/ courtesy
  8. Love, responsibility
  9. Cooperation, unity, courage, hard work


(c)        Reasons why female circumcision is being discouraged in Kenya today

(i)         It can lead to infection/ STIs/HIV/AIDS due to use of same instruments

(ii)        It can lead to injury/ Mutilation of the reproductive organs of the initiate

(iii)       It is against child/ human rights

(iv)       It can cause psychological torture/ traumatizes the initiate.

(v)        It can lead to irresponsible sexual behaviour

(vi)       It can lead to early marriages

(vii)      It can lead to school dropouts among the girls

(viii)     It can lead to bleeding/ death

(ix)       It can lead to separation/ divorce

(x)        It can lead to disagreement/ quarrels in families


  1. (a) Practices in traditional African Communities that show their belief in life

after death

(i)         Naming children after the dead

(ii)        Invoking the names of the dead during problems/ inviting them/ important


(iii)       Burying the dead with some property

(iv)       Offering sacrifices to the dead

(v)        Pouring of libation to the living dead/ ancestors/ leaving some food for the living


(vi)       Taking care of the graveyards

(vii)      Fulfilling the wishes/ will of the dead/ carrying out the demands of the dead

(viii)     Taking of the dead as having gone for a walk

  • Washing the dead body/ oiling/ decent burial
  • Holding commemoration ceremonies
  • Burying the dead in a particular position/ direction/ ancestral land.

(b)        The requirements that one had to fulfill to be made an elder in traditional African


(i)         Being initiated

(ii)        Must be married

(iii)       Being of good conduct/ achievements/ warrior (hero)/ character/ respected in


(iv)       Should have children

(v)        Having the / specific age

(vi)       Ability to provide for others/ wealth

(vii)      Should be knowledgeable in matters of the society/ confidential/ wise

(viii)     Having support from leaders of the society

(i) Be of sound mind/ good health

(ii) Be a bonafide member of the community

(iii) By undergoing the rituals of being an elder        (6 x 1 = 6 mks)


(c)        Factors that are undermining the role of elders in Kenya today

(i)         Modern education/ technology

(ii)        Urbanization/ migration

(iii)       Intermingling of different cultures/ intermarriages

(iv)       Laws are made in parliament/ constitution of Kenya is applied

(v)        Western way of life tends to promote individualism

(vi)       Wealth has taken over ‘age’ as a symbol of status

(vii)      Most judicial duties have been taken over by the courts

(viii)     Christianity has influenced the members who listen to their church leaders other

than the elders

(ix)      Permissive/ moral decadence

(6 x 1 = 6 mks)


  • It enabled a man and a woman to know if they were suitable marriage partners
  • It gave the parents of the girl  and the boy a chance to meet and know one another
  • It allowed  time  for  the bride- wealth to be paid and negotiated
  • It allowed the boy and the girl to be taught their responsibilities
  • The boy and the girl got a chance to learn about their in- laws to be
  • Parties from both sides were able  to exchange  gifts cementing the relationships between them


  • It ensures a lasting marriage relationship
  • It is a token of appreciation by the bridegroom and his family to the bride’s family for having cared for her.
  • Dowry strengthens the relationship between the families
  • It is regarded as a compensation to the bride’s family for losing a member
  • It is a seal of the covenant between the family of the bridegroom and that of the bride
  • It brings members of the two families together to share celebrations
  • It is a sign that the man is serious with his intention to marry



  • The circumstances of birth
  • The community heroes
  • The  ancestors
  • Physical characteristics of the child
  • Experienced of the mother  or parents during the time of pregnancy
  • The grandparents
  • Seasons during which the child is born e.g. rainy, dry etc
  • Phenomena such as floods, drought and famine


  • He predicted future occurrences
  • He warned against calamities
  • He advised people on various issues
  • He interceded on behalf of the community in times of trouble
  • He presided  over various cases in the community
  • He interpreted messages from  the spirit world
  • He comforted the sick, and the depressed in the community
  • He identifies the evil spirits causing trouble
  • He was consulted in case of bareness or impotence



  • The expectant mother is given charms to wear to protect her and the  unborn child
  • The expectant mother observes  taboos hence avoid certain foods, people  and places
  • The expectant mother is checked and occasionally advised by traditional mid- wives
  • Prayers sacrifices and libations are given to God and ancestors for protection
  • Sexual intercourse is not  allowed during pregnancy
  • Herbs and medicine is administered to the expectant mother
  • There should be no harmful implements in the house or compound where the expectant mother  lives
  • Expectant mothers were  not to be treated cruelly by members of the family / society etc


  • Building shrines for the ancestors
  • Pouring libations to them
  • Giving their names to the newborns
  • Protecting their  culture and ancestral land
  • Obeying their wishes and wills revealed through dreams
  • Appeasing them through sacrifices and offerings
  • Inviting them to take part in celebrating of rituals
  • Men approach ancestors for minor needs of  life
  • Giving ancestors whatever they need  in rituals
  • Approaching shrines with respect

  • God is the creator  of the universe
  • God is the creator of man
  • Everything God made was good
  • Man was created came after most things were created
  • Creation work did not stop in the distant past  ( God continues working)
  • God is powerful and merciful
  • Death/ evil came as a result of disobedience



  • Advised the community on rain and drought
  • Had power to pray for rain
  • Had mysterious power
  • Acted as diviners/ priests and prophets
  • Sacrificed, prayed and gave offering to God and ancestors
  • Sprinkled water to call rain
  • They were well versed with the skins habit of trees, moon and stars
  • They could plead with  God to stop the rain
  • They were able to tell the people when the rain would


  • Wealth was acquired through
  • Inheritance
  • Trade
  • Cattle  raids
  • Work
  • Bride price




  • Laziness
  • Witchcraft/ sorcery
  • Breaking of taboos
  • Disrespect of in- laws
  • Failure to pay dowry
  • Unfaithfulness
  • In case one is discovered to be a  thief
  • In case one suffered from madness, leprosy, epilepsy





  • He baptized Jesus in the River Jordan.
  • He advised people to live Holy lives to share and what is right.
  • He preached repentance of sins.
  • He baptized repentant people.
  • He acknowledged Jesus greatness
  • He introduced Jesus to the crowd as the Messiah.
  • He handed over his disciples to Jesus.


  • Wonderful counselor
  • Might God
  • Everlasting father
  • Prince of peace
  • Immanuel


  • He was filled by the Holy Spirit
  • He brought light to the nations
  • He suffered on behalf of many
  • He was God’s son sent to carry out a mission.
  • He restored sight to the blind
  • He brought salvation to many
  • His name was Immanuel
  • He was born in Bethlehem
  • He was born of a virgin
  • Jesus came from the lineage of David
  • He was betrayed by his close associates.


  • The expected a political messiah who would overthrow their colonial rulers.
  • The Messiah would rule the world from Jerusalem and receive homage from all the nations of the earth.
  • The messianic kingdom would be a temporary Jewish kingdom like the roman kingdom but more powerful.
  • The establishment of this kingdom would be preceded by cosmic signs.
  • The messiah would be a descendant of David
  • He would come after the return of Elijah
  • He would not associate with the poor, sinners and gentiles.
  • He would uphold Judaism.
  • He would perform miracles
  • The messianic kingdom would be accomplished through God’s judgments on Israel’s enemies
  • Nathan prophesied that
  • King David’s house and kingdom would last forever.
  • The Messiah would be a descendant of David and would rule forever
  • God would help the everlasting King forever.

The Messiah would use Gods authority and strength to rule his people the Israelites

  • Psalms 41:9 foretold the messiahs betrayal by a close associate

  • Psalms 110:2-2 forecasted a victorious king who would conquer and liberal

The king would rule wisely and advocate justice and righteousness.

He would save Judah from her enemies and ensure that the Israelites lived securely.

The king would be called “The lord our righteousness.


  • The servant will succeed in his work and will be highly honored.
  • The servant is despised, rejected and ignored by those who are with him.
  • He has nothing attractive. He is very ordinary and simple
  • He is harshly treated, arrested and sentenced to death and killed.
  • His body is buried with the bodies of rich men
  • He endures all that is done to him in humble silence
  • He accepts the suffering which should have been received by others for their sins
  • Through his sufferings human being are reconciled to God.
  • It was the will of God that the servant should suffer.
  • His death is a sacrifice to bring forgiveness of sins.



  • Preaching the good news about Jesus Christ.
  • Calling people to repentance and forgiveness of sins
  • Baptizing  people
  • Observing the ten commandments
  • Pointing out evil in the society
  • Praying for the nation
  • Teaching Christian ethics as expected from the Bible
  • Offering guidance and counseling on complex
  • Advocating for rights of all human kind.
  • Solving and reconciliation of warning communities and nations.

  • He was the link between the Old testament and the new testament
  • He prepared the way for the coming of the  messiah by asking them to repent and be baptized
  • He preached to the people about Jesus the lamb of God
  • He introduced Jesus to the people
  • John baptized Jesus
  • He Condemned evils that were being carried out by Herod
  • He condemned the Phararisees for their hypocrisy and the pagan roman authorities for being oppressive and immoral
  • He ushered people to the messianic era



  • Jesus was born from David’s lineage
  • Angel Gabriel repeated the titles used by Isaiah to describe the Messiah
  • At the start  of his ministry, Jesus  proved that he was the messiah  by reading aloud the scripture by Isaiah
  • As foretold Jesus was born  in Bethlehem the city of David
  • Jesus suffered humiliation, rejection and opposition  and death on the cross
  • Jesus was the true messiah as he fulfilled Psalms 41:9. He was betrayed by Judas, a close friend
  • Jesus as the messiah established God’s rule on earth
  • Jesus came as a universal messiah



  • He bore the sins  of human beings
  • Delivered humanity by dying on the cross
  • He submissively bore suffering and disgrace
  • He was despised and rejected
  • He was mocked and spat on
  • He was pierced and wounded on his sides
  • He was buried in a rich man’s tomb
  • He was innocent yet treated as criminal
  • Through his wounds many have been healed
  • Through him the everlasting kingdom was established




Jesus was to be born of a virgin

Jesus conception was to be effected through the holy spirit

John was to be born of the house of David

The name Jesus which means saviour was given by the angel

Jesus was to save people from their sins

Jesus was going to be great

Jesus was to be holy

Jesus would be an everlasting king


  • When Jesus was eight days old he was circumcised according to the Jewish customs
  • As a baby he was given the name Jesus that means God saves
  • Jesus mother underwent the purification ritual after the birth of Jesus as required  by the law
  • Jesus was dedicated to God as the first born of his parents as required by the law
  • At the age of 12 he attended the Passover feast in the temple in the company of his parents
  • Jesus lived in Nazareth with his parents and he was obedient to them according to the law of God
  • Jesus celebrated the Jewish religious festivals.

E.g. Passover, Pentecost, tabernacle and attended the synagogues and the Sabbath days

  • He attended a wedding ceremony at Cana in  Galilee and joined other guests to celebrate a marriage ceremony
  • Jesus appointed the twelve disciples to represent the twelve tribes of Israel
  • He was a sacred number to the Jews
  • Jesus kept the Jewish religious observations such as praying and fasting
  • Jesus salutations to the disciples “ peace be with you” Shalom was according to the Jewish traditions


  • Circumcision
  • Naming
  • Baptism
  • Presentation in the temple/ dedication
  • Visit to Jerusalem during the Passover at the age of twelve
  • Celebrated the Passover with the twelve disciples
  • He participated in the feast of the  tabernacles


  • Both  were announced by the  same angel Gabriel
  • In both the angel said that the child would be great
  • The angel  said that John was going to be full of the holy spirit in  Jesus  case the angel  said that the child would be conceived through the power of the holy spirit
  • In both cases the parent’s were afraid when they heard the news
  • In both cases the births were going to be extraordinary


  • Jesus was going to be great and would be called the son  of the most high
  • He would be given the throne of his father David – to rule forever
  • Jesus was going to be everlasting  king
  • He was going to save people from sin
  • Jesus conception was to be effected by the power of the  holy spirit


  • He would bring universal peace and salvation
  • Jesus had been chosen by God  for the destruction  and salvation  of many in Israel
  • He was a sign from God  and many  people would speak against him
  • He would meet opposition which would  bring suffering to him and his mother
  • Jesus was  the messiah
  • He would deliver chosen  people from oppression
  • He would be rejected  by his own people
  • His suffering would bring sorrow to his mother

  • An angel  appeared to a group of shepherds who were  looking after their sheep at night
  • They were afraid
  • The angel told them not to be afraid
  • The angel told them the good news about  the birth of a saviour in the city of David
  • The angel went  on to give them  a sign  of how  they would find the baby wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger
  • A group of angels appeared singing songs  of praise to God
  • The shepherds rushed to Bethlehem where the  angel had told them they would find the saviour  lying in a manger
  • They found Jesus as they had  been told
  • They  praised and worshipped God


  • Parents should understand their children
  • Parents should  teach their children about God  from early age
  • Communication channels between  parents and children should be open
  • Parents should be connected about their children’s welfare.


  1. (a) Message of angel Gabriel to Mary in Luke 1:26 – 38

(i)         She was highly favoured among women

(ii)        She will bring forth a son/ will be named Jesus

(iii)       He will be called the son of highest/ son of God/ will be great

(iv)       He will be given the throne of his father David

(v)        He will reign over the house of Jacob forever

(vi)       The kingdom will be everlasting

(vii)      The Holy Spirit would come upon her

(viii)     The child to be born would be holy

(ix)       That Elizabeth her cousin had also conceived in her old age

(x)        With God, nothing will be impossible


(b)       What is the magnificent reveals about the nature of God ( Luke 1: 46 – 56)

(i)         God is a saviour because he remembers the lowly

(ii)        God is mighty for the scatters the proud/ does great things

(iii)       God is holy/ holy is his name

(iv)       God is merciful to those who fear him

(v)        God is caring/ protecting because he exalts the humble

(vi)       He is a provider/ sustainer because he fills the hungry

(vii)      He is faithful because he keeps his promises

(viii)     He is kind/ helper to his servant Israel

(4 x 2 = 8 mks)


(c) Qualities shown by Jesus when he accompanied his parents to the temple at the gate of twelve

(i)         He was obedient

(ii)        He was courageous

(iii)       He was knowledgeable/ intelligent/ wise

(iv)       He was respectful

(v)        He was cooperative

(vi)       He was patient

(vii)      He was honest

(viii)     He was assertive/ independent/ making independent decisions

(ix)       He was social/ outgoing

(x)        He was inquisitive                                           (6 x 1 = 6 mks)



  • He would be God’s prophet
  • He would prepare the way for the messiah
  • He would bring joy to Zechariah  and others
  • He would be a Nazarite
  • He would call people to repentance
  • He would have the spirit and power of Elijah
  • He would be courageous in carrying out his duties
  • His name  would be John to show that God  is gracious to his people
  • He would great
  • He would be filled  with the holy spirit

  • Just like Elijah John also lived in the wilderness
  • John was also filled with holy spirit and proclaimed God’s message to the people
  • He also met opposition from  the king just  like Elijah
  • He was beheaded and Elijah  was threatened with death by Jezebel
  • He stored firmly for the covenant way of life
  • He was a great prophet of his time
  • He led a simple life and faced  many problems like  hunger just like Elijah


  • God answers prayers however long it may take
  • Christians should not doubt God’s messages
  • We should be persistent, faithful and patient in prayers
  • Christians should be devoted to God in prayer
  • Children are a gift from God and a source of joy to their parents
  • God has a purpose for every child’s life



  • God exalts to humble and rejects the proud
  • Christians should humbly accept God’s plan for their lives
  • God has a purpose for the life of every child
  • Nothing is impossible with God
  • God wanted Jesus to part of a human family for him to identify with the human race



  • Mary went to visit Elizabeth after angel Gabriel told her that Elizabeth was expecting a baby
  • Mary greeted Elizabeth and the baby in Elizabeth womb leaped  with joy
  • Elizabeth was filled with the holy spirit who revealed to her that the child she was carrying was the messiah
  • The spirit was also revealed that  Mary was the most blessed of al women
  • Many sang a song  known as the “ magnificent”


  • Many thanks God for
  • Being good to her
  • His goodness and love for all human beings
  • Fulfilling his promises to his people
  • Delivering the oppressed from  their oppressors


  • Elizabeth was very happy and so was Zechariah
  • John was circumcised after eight days in accordance with the Jewish customs
  • Elizabeth named the child John
  • Zechariah affirmed the name of their son in writing
  • The people were surprised at the name because it was not in Zechariah’s lineage
  • Zechariah was now able to speak
  • He broke into a hymn called the Benedictus
  • Zechariah expressed his feelings of joy, gratitude  and praise
  • Zechariah told  of the mission of his son



Zechariah expressed the prophetic ministry of John that he would

  • Be called  the prophet of the most high
  • Be the herald of the Messiah
  • Call people to repentance in order to bring back human beings to their right relationship with God
  • Bring peace to men by showing them the  messiah, the light of the world
  • Zechariah announced the begging of the messianic age



  • The parents of  Jesus offered the purification sacrifices according to the Law of Moses
  • Simon was moved by the holy Spirit and took Jesus  into his arms and praised  God
  • Simon  prophesied about  the mission of Jesus
  • Prophetess Ann  thanked God  for sending Jesus  who  would bring redemption
  • The parents of Jesus were  amazed by the things Simon and Anna said  about their child



  • Your prayers have been answered
  • Your wife shall bear a son
  • His name shall be John
  • He shall be a source of joy
  • He shall be great
  • He shall not drink wine
  • He shall be filled with the holy spirit
  • He shall turn many to the lord
  • He shall go before the lord in the spirit of Elijah
  • He shall be dump for unbelief




  • Jesus is greater than John
  • Jesus will bring God’s salvation
  • He will proclaim judgment
  • He will punish sinners and reward the righteous
  • Jesus is the messiah
  • Jesus is the lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world
  • Jesus will be filled with the holy spirit
  • Jesus was sent by God


  • When he was tempted  into  the wilderness by Satan before he started his public ministry
  • Temptation in Nazareth when he asked him to perform the miracles  he had performed  at Capernaum
  • Temptation from  the two sons of Zebedee when asked Jesus to destroy the inhospitable Samaritan villages
  • During the transfiguration when Peter wanted Jesus to remain on the mountain but Jesus rejected the idea.
  • When Jesus predicted his coming suffering and death and Peter objected to it and Jesus told him “ go behind me Satan”
  • At the garden of Gethsemane before his arrest when asked God to “remove this cup from me…….”
  • He was tempted while on the cross by the people and even the crucified   thief that he should save himself from the cross.


  1. Answers as in questions Q2 above


  • Jesus wanted to confirm and shop his approval of John’s ministry
  • Baptism provided an opportunity for the manifestation of the holy spirit
  • He wanted to identity himself with the sinful mankind
  • It prepared Jesus for his mission
  • Accepting Baptism meant  his final acceptance of the work of salvation
  • It was a way of fulfilling the old testament prophecies about the messiah
  • It was the last act of preparing those who were ready to receive the messiah
  • It was God’s plan for saving mankind
  • It assured John and others that Jesus was the son of God
  • Baptism introduced Jesus to the people


  • John baptized people but Jesus did not
  • John prepared the way for the messiah but Jesus was the messiah
  • John preached and told people to repent their sins but Jesus forgive people sins
  • John was only a prophet but Jesus came as a saviour
  • Jesus healed people and casted out demons but John only preached and baptized people
  • John baptized people with water but Jesus was to baptize people with the holy spirit and fire

  1. (a) the baptism of Jesus in River Jordan by John the baptized in

Luke 3:21-23

  • All the people had been baptized by John
  • Jesus was baptized
  • Jesus then started praying
  • The heaven opened
  • The holy spirit descended upon Jesus in a bodily form as a dove
  • Then a voice came from heaven
  • Then it said, ‘thou art my beloved son with thee am well pleased.’

5 x 1 = 5 mks

(b) The teachings of John the Baptist

  • He told the people to repent and be baptized for forgiveness of their sins/ he asked people to prepare the way for the lord
  • He told them to be faithful and obedient to God and not to pride in Abraham as their ancestor
  • He warned them of God’s punishment on sin
  • He encouraged the rich to share with the needy
  • He told the tax collectors not to seal/be honest
  • He told the soldiers to be contented with their wages/ stop greed
  • He told the soldiers to stop robbing/ accusing people falsely/ should be truthful
  • He told them that the messiah who was to come after  him was mightier/ he was unworthy to untie his sandals
  • The messiah would baptize the people with fire and the Holy Spirit
  • The messiah would separate the good from the evil/ the evil would be punished
  • He condemned Herod for his adulterous  life/ marrying the brother’s wife

4 x 2 = 8 mks


(c) Reason why Christians find it hard to apply the teachings of John the Baptist in their lives

  • They lack faith in God’s word
  • Divisions along tribal/ racial/denominational lines affects unity among Christians
  • Clinging to the past/ inability to abandon the old/ previous life style
  • Negative attitude by the rich towards the needy/ poor
  • The influence of the mass media/ moral decadence in society
  • There is rampant corruption in the society
  • The emergency of cult leaders/ false prophets in the society/ lack of role models
  • Some Christians lead hypocritical life
  • Peer pressure

7 x 1 = 7 mks


  • To be  identify as the messiah
  • To identify  himself with the sinful  mankind a sign
  • Jesus was tempted to arbitrate between two brothers
  • When the rich young ruler called Jesus a good teacher
  • When he asked whether it was right to pay taxes to Caesar
  • In the garden of Gethsemane, he was tempted to escape the cup of suffering
  • During his trial he was asked whether he was the messiah
  • During crucifixion he was spat on but did not fight back
  • On the cross one of the thieves wanted him to deliver them
  • He was questioned by the Sadducees about the resurrection

  • They should depend on Jesus
  • They should be well versed with the scriptures so that they can refer to the bible
  • They should seek guidance and counseling
  • They should attend bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible
  • They should have faith or believe in God to help them during trials
  • They should avoid wrong company
  • They should take part in active leisure
  • They should  avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin
  • They should resist Satan


  • To follow Jesus example and identify with him
  • To receive the holy  spirit who teaches and guide them  in their lives
  • To prepare one to enter the kingdom of God
  • It  unites Christians under one body of Christ
  • It effects complete forgiveness  of sins
  • It is an act of being born  again
  • It is a symbol of death and resurrection
  • Through  baptism  one becomes a child of God


  • When all the people were Baptized Jesus  was also baptized
  • He was baptized by John  the Baptist in River Jordan at a place called Bethbora
  • Jesus was  praying when the heavens opened
  • The holy spirit descended from heaven upon him  inform of a dove
  • A voice came from heaven saying “ Thou art my beloved son with thee I am well pleased”.



  • Christians get new names which symbolize new life in Christ
  • Christians receive the holy spirit who gives them guidance in their lives
  • Christians identify themselves with Jesus and the church
  • Water is symbolically used as a cleanser it wipes away one’s sins and gives a new life
  • Christians are brought together as members of the church of Christ
  • During baptism Christians receive the holy spirit who guides them in their lives
  • The old self dies and becomes a new person a Christian
  • It is the first step of being accepted  into the Christian brotherhood



  • Since Jesus was tempted, he fully  our difficulties when us beyond our strength
  • God does not tempt us beyond  our strength
  • Since Jesus was tempted we will also be tempted
  • Through temptations we will  also be tempted.
  • Through temptations and  trials our faith is strengthened
  • When we are tempted we should turn to the bible for guidance
  • We should seek the holy spirit who enabled Jesus to conquer evil



  • Christians should not fear to condemn evils in the society
  • Christians should commit their lives wholly to the work of God
  • Christians should accept their role with humility and preach the gospel
  • Christians should be ready to proclaim the gospel even in a harsh environment for people to know  God
  • Christians should share their resources with the less fortunate
  • Christians should be content with their pay not to accept bribes
  • Christians should learn to be truthful in their work environment
  • Christians should pronounce the consequences of judgment on those willing to repent



  • To give bribe in order to get a job
  • To engage in irresponsible sex due to peer  pressure
  • To steal money entrusted to them
  • To cheat  in examinations
  • To take drugs/ alcohol
  • To exploit those who serve under them in their places of work
  • To keep excess change from a shopkeeper or tout
  • To show off
  • To change serves like healing


  1. The temptations were as follows
  • Satan told Jesus to turn stones into bread and eat

Jesus answered that man does not live on bread alone

  • Satan then took Jesus to a high place  and showed  him  all the kingdoms of the world

Satan promised to give Jesus everything if Jesus worshipped him

Jesus answered that one should worship God and serve him alone

  • Hastily, Satan took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple. He asked Jesus to throw himself down since God would send angels to ensure that he did not get hurt. Jesus answered that no one should tempt God.



  • The spoken word  of Jesus during the healing of the paralyzed man “ your sins are forgiven” shows that Jesus was interested in curing people of their spiritual illness
  • Restoring people  back to health  liberates them  from physical and psychological suffering
  • Casting out demons and raising people  from dead shows that evil and the  power of Satan are  overcomed
  • Those who witness the miracles realize God’s  presence in Jesus  and accepted him  as  the long awaited  saviour
  • The healing of non- Jews attests to the fact  that God’s saving grace is for all humanity
  • The healing gave hope to the sick
  • The healing was a demonstration of God’s love for those who were oppressed by sickness.


  • Jesus was a teacher
  • Jesus has power over the Sabbath
  • Jesus was human
  • Jesus is the holy one of God
  • Jesus had power over demons
  • Jesus had concern over people
  • Jesus was courageous


  • They considered themselves self- righteous
  • They despised others
  • They exalted themselves
  • They knew the commandments but did not apply them appropriately
  • They followed Jesus  with an intention of finding faults
  • They followed  rules made by human beings
  • They emphasized the outward cleanliness as opposed to purity of heart
  • They altered the law of Moses to suit  their selfish  motives
  • They were a bad influence  to the people
  • Their effect on the people was hidden  yet widespread


  • By teaching them
  • By sending them on a mission work e.g. the 72 disciples
  • By praying for them
  • By telling them about  his coming death and resurrection
  • By being with them e.g.  during the transfiguration he was with Peter, John and James and this strengthened their faith

  • Should be knowledgeable in God’s word
  • Should be obedient to God’s commandment
  • Have faith in Jesus
  • Should preach the gospel
  • Should help the needy
  • Live a life of fellowship with others
  • Be a role model
  • Be ready to suffer for Christ
  • Guide and counsel others
  • Pray all the time
  • Should condemn  evils in the society


  1. (a) What Angel Gabriel revealed about John the Baptist when he

announced his birth to Zechariah

  • He would be a source of joy to the parents
  • Many people would rejoice at his birth
  • He would be great in the sight of the lord
  • He was not to take strong drink/ wine
  • He was to be filled with the Holy spirit from  his mother’s womb
  • Many Israelites would turn to God through him
  • He would have the spirit of Elijah/ power
  • He was to prepare the people for the lord/ call people to repentance
  • He would turn the fathers hearts to children/ bring reconciliation


(b) Ways which show that Jesus came from a poor background from his early life up to twelve years

  • His father was a poor carpenter
  • His mother was an ordinary village girl
  • He was born in a manger/ cattle shed
  • He was born in small town of Judah/ Bethlehem
  • The first people to visit him were shepherds who were lowly regarded
  • He was revealed to Simeon and Anna who were simple
  • During  his dedication the parents offered birds
  • He grew in Nazareth town of  low status

(c) Reasons why children should take part in church activities

  • They are made in the image of God
  • To follow the example of Christ who went to the synagogue/ temple
  • To prepare them for future roles as leaders
  • To teach them religious beliefs/  practices
  • To lay foundation for Christian, orals at an early age
  • Jesus taught that the kingdom belongs to them/ he  appreciated/ blessed children
  • To help  develop/ improve  their talents
  • To give them  an opportunity to socialize with others
  • To help them spend their leisure positively


  • To attract the attention of his  listeners
  • To help his listeners understand better
  • To separate the serious people from the onlookers
  • To enrich his teachings
  • To avoid direct confrontation with his enemies
  • It was  a common way of teaching those days
  • To teach about God’s mercy of sinners
  • To make people think critically about issues concerning God’s kingdom
  • To relate present issues with  those  of future kingdom positively



  • His popularity
  • His interpretation of the Sabbath
  • His failure to observe  the law of fasting
  • He associated with tax collectors
  • His claim to be messiah
  • He out rightly condemned them
  • Teaching with authority
  • Claiming to forgive sins





  • Preaching
  • Teaching
  • Being role model
  • Holding crusades
  • Organizing  seminars and conference
  • Electronic mechanisms e.g. sms and emails
  • Print media e.g. posters and magazines
  • Door to door evangelism
  • Through demonstrations and role play
  • Through the mass media e.g. radio and TV
  • Through Christian music e.g. cassettes and C.D.s



  • Jesus was teaching in the synagogue on a Sabbath
  • People were astonished because he spoke with authority
  • There was a  man with a demon in the synagogue
  • The man cried out loudly “ Ah what have you to do with us Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who are. The holy one of God”.
  • Jesus rebuked the demon saying “ be silent and come out of him”
  • The demon came out of the man having thrown him down but causing him to harm
  • The  people were amazed at his word and power
  • Reports about Jesus went out into  every surrounding region


  • They left their families and followed him
  • They accepted his teachings
  • They invited him to their homes e.g. Levi
  •  They accompanied him in his work
  • They addressed  him as Rabbi/ teacher
  • They took care when he remembered  he had denied Jesus
  • They were present  when he was crucified on the cross
  • They helped him to spread the good news e.g. the 72 and the 12



  • Political interference with church  work
  • Corruption in the society
  • Factionalism within church members
  • Death and sickness among the members
  • Struggle for leadership among the members
  • Hypocrisy of some of the members
  • Financial constraints
  • Increasing members of atheists
  • Modern styles of living some of which are nor on accordance with biblical teachings



  • He annoyed the people by telling them that their forefathers rejected God’s prophets
  • He failed to perform the miracles that he had performed in Capernaum
  • He told the people that prophets are ignored in their own country
  • He declared that he had come to fulfill Isaiah’s prophecy concerning the Messiah
  • He was the son of Joseph the carpenter
  • He compared them unfavorably with the Gentiles



  • Jesus was human e.g. he felt hungry
  • Jesus was divine
  • Jesus had power over Satan
  • Jesus was obedient to his father
  • Jesus was ready for his mission
  • Jesus was well versed with the scriptures
  • Jesus knew that temptations come from the devil as he told the devil to leave him



  • Materialism – love of wealth at the expense of spiritual
  • Corruption- This makes people to mistrust God loose
  • Permissiveness in the society- It makes people loose values system especially religious values
  • Mass media- people spend time watching radio and TV which may influence them negatively
  • Confusion due to religious pluralism- some people start wondering which is the true religion or cult
  • Religious persecution which make some people lose hope in God
  • Sexual immorality- they are engaged in immorality
  • Drug and alcohol addiction


  • Love their enemies
  • Bless those who curse them
  • Should be prayerful
  • Forgiveness- not revenge
  • Kindness- share with others
  • Be merciful
  • Must be generous – give without expecting back
  • Courageous
  • Obedient





  • The appearance of Moses and Elijah attests to the fact that Jesus had came to fulfill the law and the prophet
  • Jesus appearing in heavenly glory before his disciples affirms his messiah ship
  • It confirms that Jesus would fulfill God’s purpose through suffering and death
  • The voice from heaven confirmed to the three disciple that Jesus was the son of God
  • God strengthened Jesus and confirmed that be approved of his messiah
  • The incident strengthened the faith of the three disciples


  • The word of God is preached to all people but different people take it in different ways
  • Some people hear the word of God but the devil carries and takes it away  so that they not believe
  • Some people hear the word of God, receive it gladly but when problems come they fall away
  • Some people hear the word of God  and keep it in their hearts until they bear fruits
  • Christians should keep the word of God in their hearts  and should spread it to others


  • Preaching and teaching all over the country
  • Healing the sick  and the blind
  • Raising the dead to life
  • Praying to God the father
  • Feeding to people e.g. the 5000
  • Identified with workers by drawing examples from the world of work
  • Washing the feet of the disciples  during the last supper
  • Calming the storm
  • Being a carpenter where he assisted his father
  • Fishing, Jesus went fishing with his disciples
  • Training instructor; he trained the disciples  on how to carry out their mission e.g. the 72 disciples
  • He appointed leaders by commissioning the disciples


  • It confirmed to them that he was the son of God
  • It shared his glory
  • It prepared the disciples for the death and resurrection of Jesus
  • It showed that there is life after death
  • The disciples witnessed the presence of God
  • The disciples witnessed Jesus in his heavenly glory
  • It appeared to Peter for the future leadership of the church
  • It strengthened the faith of the disciples

  • He called the ordinary people to be his disciples e.g.  Peter
  • Healed sick
  • He fed the hungry
  • He preached the good news
  • He visited the lonely
  • He mixed with sinners  and outcast
  • He died for sinners
  • He forgave the sinners


  • Jesus took his followers to a quiet place in Bethsaida to rest
  • They were followed by a multitude
  • Jesus turned and preached to them about the kingdom of God and healed the sick
  • The disciples were worried about what the people  would eat
  • Jesus asked the apostle to feed the crows
  • They answered that they had  only five loaves and two fish, which could  not  feed the 5000 people
  • Jesus asked the disciples to make the people sit down in groups
  • He took the five loaves and two fish, looked  up to heaven and thanked God
  • He then broke the bread and asked his disciples to share it out
  • People ate to their fill and there were 12 baskets of food left.


  • Jesus is a universal saviour Jesus is concerned about the total well being of human beings
  • Jesus has compassion towards the suffering
  • Jesus is the lord of life
  • Jesus came to save the world from sin
  • Jesus is powerful
  • Jesus has power over all sickness  and disease
  • Jesus is a healer


  • He had faith  in Jesus
  • He was courageous
  • He was humble
  • He was loving
  • He was generous


  • Jesus was not only concerned with the spiritual food which was attained through preaching the word but also with people’s physical needs
  • It was a sign of  the messianic bouquet
  • Jesus had divine  power
  • They learned to have faith in God
  • Jesus is a miracle worker
  • All things are possible with God
  • They learned to rely on God to provide their basic  needs
  • They learned the importance of sharing what they have
  • They were encouraged to show compassion to the suffering
  • They learnt the importance to show compassion  to the suffering
  • They learnt the importance of praying for their needs and those of others
  • They learnt that they should meet  people’s physical and spiritual needs
  • They learnt the kingdom of God is characterized by the fullness of contentment of  his people both spiritually and physically
  • To serve others

  • To evoke people’s faith
  • He had compassion for those who were suffering
  • To fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah
  • To prove that he was the lord of life
  • To prove that he was the lord of life
  • To prove that he was  the messiah
  • Jesus was concerned with the total well being of human beings
  • To make people  believe in him
  • It was a way of destroying the work of Satan
  • To show that  he was the son of God
  • It was a manifestation of God’s love and concern for his people through Jesus Christ


  • Jesus had comparison for the sick
  • Jesus wanted to free people from the oppression of Satan
  • He wanted to establish the kingdom of God
  • To fulfill Isaiah’s prophecy concerning the messiah
  • To destroy the kingdom  of Satan
  • To teach about faith
  • To prove his messiah- ship
  • It was part of his mission
  • It was because of his love for mankind



  • Jesus was at the entrance of the city of  Nain
  • He saw a widow weeping
  • Her only son had died
  • Jesus was moved by compassion
  • He told the widow to stop weeping
  • Jesus touched the brier
  • He ordered the young man to arise
  • The young man arose
  • The people were seized with fear and glorified  God


  • By praying for the sick
  • By visiting the sick
  • By offering guidance and counseling to the sick
  • By taking care of the sick
  • By  building hospitals
  • By offering medical services to the  sick
  • By providing financial assistance for the sick


  1. (a) the healing of the Gerasene demoniac Luke 8: 26-39
  • Jesus and the disciples arrived at the land of Gerasene
  • They met a man who was demon possessed and lived among the tombs
  • The man fell down and told Jesus not to torment  him
  • This is because Jesus had commanded the unclean spirit out of the man
  • Jesus asked the man his name
  • The man replied  that his name was legion which meant many demons
  • The demons begged Jesus not to let them go into the abyss but into the swine that  were nearby
  • Jesus commanded the demons to go into the swine
  • The swine rushed and drowned  in a nearby lake
  • The herdsmen then fled and went to tell people in the city concerning what had happened
  • People came and found the man sitting at the feet of Jesus, healed, dressed  and in his right mind
  • The people got afraid of Jesus and asked him to leave their territory
  • The healed man asked Jesus whether he could accompany him
  • Jesus told him to go  and  tell others what God had done for him
  • The man went through the town proclaiming the good news about Jesus




  • Jesus said that people do not light a lamp only to cover  it with a bowl or hide it under a bed
  • They light it and put it on lamp stand so that everybody will see the light as they come in
  • The parable points on how people respond to good’s word
  • Those who hear and accept the word are a light to the others



  • Christians need to have faith in Jesus in order to accomplish the work of God
  • Christians are the light of the world
  • Christians should not be embarrassed about being Christians
  • Jesus is the light
  • A Christians has a duty to share the knowledge of God
  • One cannot claim to be a Christian if the knowledge of God  he/ she is kept and not shared


  • Teaching the youth
  • Teaching the Sunday school
  • Having bible studies
  • Preaching fellowships
  • Being a role model



  • Jesus mother and brothers came looking for hi,
  • They could not see him because of the crowd
  • When Jesus was told that they wanted to see him he replied that his mother and brothers were those who hear the word of God and obey it.
  • Jesus relatives are those who respond to his teachings and practice them
  • All followers of Christ  belong to one great family
  • Following Christ means forsaking all family attachment
  • Jesus is the son of God
  • Jesus is the messiah



  • The assurance of the arrival of the kingdom of God
  • God’s mercy towards sinners
  • God’s coming judgment
  • The conditions for discipleship
  • The need for immediate  and personal response  to the good  news
  • The passion of  Jesus and his eventual death



  • Jesus was sailing with his disciples across the sea of Galilee when a great storm arose
  • Jesus who had fallen asleep was awakened by his disciples as the water was entering their boat
  • The disciples were afraid that they would drown
  • They therefore wake Jesus and asked him to save them before their boat capsized
  • Jesus rebuked the winds and the waves
  • He asked the disciples “where is your faith”?



  • God is merciful and loving
  • There is no  sin that God cannot forgive
  • We should not condemn others rather we should search our hearts and repent our sins
  • We should love everybody and help them  to come to repentance
  • We should forgive other people so that we can also be forgiven
  • After repentance and forgiveness we should never sin again
  • We are supposed to be as perfect as God



  • Jesus took his followers to a quit  place  in Bethsaida to rest
  • They were followed by a multitude
  • Jesus preached to them about the kingdom  of  God and healed the sick
  • At the end of the day the disciples were worried about what the people would eat
  • Jesus asked the disciples to feed the crowd
  • They answered that they had only five loaves and two fish which could not feed 5000 people
  • Jesus asked the disciples to make the people sit down in groups
  • He took the five loaves and two fish looked up to heaven and thanked God
  • He broke the bread and asked his disciples to share it out
  • People ate to their fill and there were 12 baskets of food left

  • Jesus wanted to find out whether the people and his disciples knew his true identity as the messiah
  • He asked the “ but who do say that I am”
  • He asked the question because time had come for him to go to Jerusalem where he was to fulfill God’s plan of saving humankind by dying on the cross
  • Peter answered that he was the messiah
  • Jesus asked the disciples not to tell anybody
  • Jesus wanted the people would think that he was a political messiah
  • He revealed to the disciples that the messiah must suffer, be killed and then resurrect





  1. We should have faith when praying
  2. We should ask God for help through prayers when faced with temptations
  3. We should pray for those who wrong us to be forgiven
  4. We should make our requests known to God in prayers
  5. We should have confidence in God when praying
  6. Prayers should be addressed to God our father
  7. Prayers should be prayed with humility
  8. God answers prayers
  9. We should pray without ceasing


Lack of faith in God

Some say that they don’t have time

Lack of knowledge on the teachings about prayers

They think that they can do without  prayers

Pride and false confidence

They have been made blind by riches


  • Prayers should be addressed to God the father
  • One should go to a secret place to pray
  • A Christians should be specific when praying
  • One should have faith
  • One should be persistent in prayer
  • One should thank God in prayers
  •  One should confess his/ her sins
  • One should ask for his/ her needs
  • One should pray for God’s  will to be done


  • One should be ready to forego some comforts in life
  • One should be willing to sacrifice things that are dear in order to spread the gospel
  • One should not look back and desire his/ her past life
  • One should forsake  any commitment that can be obstacle to the work of God
  • One has to accept suffering persecution rejection and even death
  • One must be willing to spread the God News.

  • Christians should not condemn those who reject Jesus  and his teachings but instead pray for them
  • Christians should emulate Jesus’ spirit of humility
  • Christians should practice self- denial and endure suffering for the sake of Christ
  • Christians should be loyal and steadfast in their faith



  • Christians should not have self- righteous attitudes
  • Christians should regard a neighbour as anyone who needs their assistance
  • The true and committed Christians demonstrate love beyond, everything else which is shown in their actions
  • Christians should show love and concern for all people regardless of their background and social status
  • Christians leaders should not practice hypocrisy like the priest and the Levite in the story of the good Samaritan
  • Christians should strive to build a relationship with God
  • Christians should put God first and seek the kingdom of God
  • Christians need to ask God to provide for all their needs through prayer



  • He told the disciples not to fear those who can kill the body but to fear God who is able to destroy the body and the soul
  • He urged the disciples to stand for Jesus and publicly confess their loyalty to him
  • He told the disciples not to worry about  being accused and being brought before the authorities as the  holy spirit would guide them and tell them what to say
  • He warned them against talking evil about the Holy Spirit


  • Jesus criticized the practice of washing hands, cups and dishes which was done ceremoniously. He told them that it was more important to pay attention to issue of charity than to external appearances.
  • Jesus criticized the Pharisees on their tithing habits. Although they tithed faithfully they neglected justice and the love of God
  • He also criticized them because they loved the reserved seats in the synagogues and to be greeted with respect in market places. They had an outward appearance and a desire to be noticed as righteous people


  • They cleansed the outside, but inside they were full of violence and evil
  • They gave tithes but failed to show justice, love and mercy
  • They emphasized the law but did not follow it
  • They did activities for public show e.g. praying, fasting, being given the best seats
  • They failed to consider the inner commitment
  • They gave people many rules that the law became  a burden  to the people
  • They approved the killing of the prophets
  • They  prevented people from God’s knowledge



  • In order to thank God for his blessings
  • It shows one’s dependence on God
  • So as to ask God for forgiveness
  • It is a way of communicating with God
  • To make their needs known to God
  • So as to worship God
  • To intercede for others



  • In prayer one should talk to God as father because he always listens
  • One should honour and praise God in prayer
  • One should pray for one’s needs as well as needs of others
  • One should ask  for forgiveness in prayers and express willingness to forgive others
  • One should pray for strength so as not to be overcome by temptations
  • In prayer one should ask for deliverance from the evil one
  • One should be persistence in prayer
  • One must have faith for prayers to be answered
  • One should approach God with humility
  • One should not look down on others in prayers



  • Opposition
  • Temptations from worldly pleasures
  • Hardships weaken one’s faith
  • False prophets contradict Christians faith
  • Division among church members
  • Greed for power
  • Challenges from science and technology
  • Eschatolical issues: some are not easy to understand
  • Challenges from other religious
  • Lack of resources in meeting their obligations
  • Communication barriers
  • Lack of basic needs



  • Christians should continue to evangelize and ensure that the gospel reaches  all people
  • Christians should not tire in evangelizing even in the face of hostility or resistance
  • Christians have a duty to take  care  of the servants of God
  • Christians should be involved in the healing ministry of Jesus in all its dimensions
  • Christians have the assurance of God’s power to overcome evil
  • Christians should be cautious of their ability to cast out evil spirits. They should  be humble and acknowledge God’s power in their actions




  • It is God who establishes his kingdom. He is like a sower
  • God gives life to the kingdom so that it grows from within like the yeast and the mustard seed
  • Jesus has brought the kingdom of God through  his word and his very person
  • The kingdom of God is a present reality
  • The Kingdom of God is universal
  • The Kingdom of God starts in a small way and grows secretly to include all the nations of the world
  • The Kingdom of God is valuable
  • There will be judgment in the kingdom of God
  • God searches the lost individuals and brings them back to the kingdom
  • There is rejoicing in the kingdom when one lost individual is retrieved and brought back
  • Christians should repent their sins
  • Christians should forgive one another
  • Sin reduces us to the level of animals
  • The friendship is found in God
  • Christians should welcome repentant sinners
  • Christians should show  love to sinners
  • Sin separates us from God
  • Christians should not put their trust in material wealth
  • Christians should not feel self- righteous
  • Christians should not pass judgement over others
  • Christians should strive to live close  to one  another
  • Christians should avoid selfishness


  • We should share our wealth with the less fortunate in society
  • Wealth should be used for the good  of others
  • It is the Christian duty of the rich to share their wealth with others
  • It is a sin to ignore the poor
  • God gives us wealth so that we can share it with others


  • They shared their material wealth with the poor
  • They shared  meals
  • They shared belongings
  • The early Christians sold their property and distributed money among themselves
  • They took care  of orphans
  • They took care of windows

  • The parable of the lost son
  • The parable of the lost coin
  • The parable of the lost sheep
  • The parable of the mustard seed
  • The parable of the yeast
  • The parable of the invited guests
  • The parable of the great feast
  • The parable of the unfruitful fig tree


  • Once God’ s kingdom is established  it grows and spread to all corners of the earth
  • The kingdom of God grows secretly
  • In spite of its humble beginning the kingdom of God  still spreads far and wide
  • The kingdom of God continues to grow in spite of opposition
  • The kingdom of God grows secretly in the hearts of people
  • The kingdom of God has a humble beginning but it grows into a great empire


  • There is selfishness in the society

The high cost of living has led to economic constraints

  • Some only share with the members of their family clan
  • Denominational differences hinder the spirit of sharing
  • It can encourage laziness and dependence
  • It is difficult to identify  those who may  require help
  • Those receiving help may be suspicious
  • Those receiving the assistance may  not show  appreciation
  • They have  not  understood the biblical concept of sharing

  • To teach that God loves  all his children including sinners
  • To teach that God continues to search and call sinners to repentance
  • To teach that God accepts any sinner that comes back to him
  •  To teach that sinners should not fear turning back to God no  matter how big their sin may be
  • To teach that the people who belong to the kingdom of God should rejoice with God when a sinner repents
  • To teach  his disciples to avoid judging others
  • To teach his disciples not to be self- complacent about their faiths but remember to seek God’s forgiveness all the time
  • To teach his disciples to avoid extravagance




  • Pooling resources together for the  benefit of all can minimize the gap between the rich  and the poor
  • Creation of more jobs, so that all can be able to acquire basic needs
  • Employers should give  fair salaries
  • Fair distribution of land and other resources
  • Putting into place a fairer  system of taxation  whereby the rich are taxed more than the poor
  • Provision of favorable loan systems so that the poor can be able to acquire adequate housing
  • The government should put in place programmes that favour the poor  such as free education free medical care
  • Security in the country should be improved so that people can be able to develop projects uninterrupted
  • People should be encouraged to work hard


  • In order to take care of other people’s needs
  • In order to get blessings from God
  • In order to help alleviate suffering in the society
  • It is a way of practicing love for  one’s neighbour
  • It is a mark of Christianity
  • To avoid God’s judgement
  • In obedience to Jesus’ teachings



  • There was a father who  had two  sons
  • The younger son  asked for his inheritance
  • The father divide his wealth between the two sons
  • The young  son  left for a far off  country where he squandered all  the money through careless  living
  • A famine occurred and the young  man had nothing to eat
  • He asked to be hired to feed pigs
  • As he  had  nothing to eat  he ate  what the pigs were  eating
  • As he took care of pigs he began to regret why  he left his father’s  home
  • One day he  made up his mind to go home and apologize to his father
  • He wanted to plead  with him  to take  him back  not as a son but as one of his hired servants
  • When he got  home  his father received  him  with  great joy
  • The father  ordered his servants his servants to dress him in the best clothes available
  • He also  killed the best calf  for him  and there was much celebration
  • The father explained why the celebration was necessary




  • God loves  all his children including sinners
  • God continues to search and call sinners to repentance
  • God accepts any sinner that  comes back to him
  • Sinners should not  fear turning back to God no matter how  big  their sins may be
  • The  people  who  belong  to the  kingdom  should  repent when a sinner repent
  • Christians  should avoid judging others
  • Christians  should not be self  complacent about their  faith but remember to seek God’s forgiveness all the time
  • Christians  should avoid extravagance



  • There was a rich man who lived in luxury

At this gate there was beggar called Lazarus

  • Lazarus body was covered with sores and dogs used to lock  his sores
  • Lazarus longed to eat what fell from  the rich  man’s table
  • Lazarus died and was carried by angled to Abraham’s bosom.
  • The rich man died and went to hell where he was great torment
  • The rich man cried out to Abraham to allow Lazarus to dip  his finger  water and cool the  rich man’s tongue
  • Abraham responded by telling the rich man that the rich man had good things in his lifetime while Lazarus suffered. It was therefore his turn to suffer
  • It was not possible for one  to cross from  one side to the  other
  • The rich man requested for Lazarus to be sent to warn the rich man’s brothers.
  • Abraham replied that they had the prophets to warn them and if they did not listen they would not listen even to one who rises from the dead

  • Preparation for eternal life in heaven or hell is made while on earth
  • The reality of life after death is witnessed in the scripture
  • Satisfaction from material possession is temporary and may lead one to miss eternal life as one may be proud selfish  and uncaring
  • Wealth should be used well in helping the needy
  • Wealth is good but indifference to the needs of others can earn one the wrath of God
  • Wealth is a gift from God and should used for the glory of God
  • Although money is good it should not be seen as being more important than all including life.
  • One cannot serve God and money because both  are  masters



  • By providing basic needs such as food and clothing
  • Putting up institutions that cater for the orphans and other destitute
  • Providing medical care for the sick
  • Sponsoring school children through payment of fees
  • Preaching the gospel for the spiritually poor
  • Showing love and kindness to the suffering
  • Offering training opportunities so that the people can be self- reliant
  • Offering employment opportunities
  • Offering guidance  and counseling
  • Visiting those who are suffering to make  them feel wanted


  • There was a widow in a town where there was a judge  who neither  feared  God nor respected  people
  • The widow kept going to the judge to demand for her rights
  • She wanted the judge  to help her but he kept refusing
  • The window was persistent  and she kept  on going  to the  judge
  • Eventually the judge helped her
  • Jesus told this parable to encourage them  to  keep  on praying and  not to give up



  • By overindulging in Alcoholism and drug
  • Indulging in immoral activities e.g. prostitution and adultery
  • Engaging in gambling
  • Buying luxurious things e.g.  expensive clothes, cars  and house which are not necessary
  •  Using money to bribe others e.g. judges
  • Using money to buy positions, power and status e.g. buying votes
  • Use of wealth  to  show off  or beg to others
  • Use of wealth to promote dangerous sports  e.g.  boxing, wrestling, bull – fighting e.t.c
  • Giving lots of money  to young children
  • Using wealth to lure others e.g. young people to immoral activities



  • One should use his/ her abilities to acquire wealth
  • One should use proper and honest means  to acquire wealth
  • Wealth  should be used to help the needy
  • The rich  should share their wealth with the poor
  • Wealth should be used responsibly so as to  avoid  misuse and mismanagement of the resources
  • An individual  should  not  allow wealth to be  a stumbling block to eternal life
  • Wealth can be a hindrance to the entry  into the  kingdom of God
  • No one can serve  God and wealth at the same time
  • Wealth comes from God  and human  beings are only stewards
  • One should  not put  all their trust and hope in  wealth
  • One should use/ her wealth  for the extension  of God’s kingdom





  • Jesus rode into Jerusalem  on a donkey

The donkey was a symbol of humility and peace

  • Riding on a donkey therefore shows that he was not a military leader but that he had come in humility to bring peace. Thus he was the triumphant victorious and humble  king
  • As Jesus entered Jerusalem, people spread their cloaks on the road. This showed that Jesus was the promised  messiah
  • People sang  and  proclaimed  him king as he rode through the city of Jerusalem
  • Some Pharisees asked Jesus to order the people to keep quiet
  • Jesus replied that if they kept quiet the stones would start shouting
  • Jesus no longer hid his messiah ship


  • Jesus wept when he reached  Jerusalem
  • He wept because  Jerusalem was going to reject him  as  the messiah
  • Jesus foresaw the judgement and destruction  of the city  of Jerusalem
  • Jesus entered the temple and drove  out the people that were trading  in the temple
  • He accused them of turning the temple into a “hideout for thieves”.
  • Jesus protested because the trading was hiding the real  purpose  of the temple
  • For this reason the temple would be destroyed because it was  no longer serving as “ house of prayer for all people”.



  • As Jesus was teaching  and preaching in the temple, the chief  priest and scribes together with the elders asked him in whose authority the taught
  • Jesus in reply asked them whether John’s right  to baptize was from heaven or from the earth
  • The questions  brought division between the leaders and the people
  • The leaders did not know how to reply
  • Jesus meant that his authority was from heaven just  like John’s



  • Jesus narrated the parable of the landlord who planted a vineyard and gave it out to tenants. Then he went away for a long time
  • At harvest time he sent three of his servants, one after the other to ask for his portion  of the harvest. The tenants  beat  up all servants.
  • The owner of the vineyard then sent his own son and the tenants beat him up and killed him
  • Jesus then told hid listeners that the owner had nothing left to do but to destroy the tenants and give the vineyard to other tenants
  • The vineyard represents God’s kingdom Israel
  • The servants represent the prophets
  • The owner of the vineyard is God
  • The son who was killed is Jesus
  • Jesus then read from the scriptures that the builders rejected became the most important
  • Jesus is the foundation of the Christian church.

He is the stone that the builders rejected





  • Unleavened bread was used during the celebration of the Jewish Passover
  • Wine was a common drink of the Jews and bread was common food.
  • Jesus wanted to given the bread and wine new meanings and use them as symbols.
  • Bread was to represent his broken for the forgiveness of sin
  • Wine was to represent his blood to be shed for the salvation to be shed for the salvation of humankind
  • Jesus wanted to give the Jewish Passover a new meaning
  • Jesus was enticing his teaching that he is the bread of life give to believers’ eternal life.
  • Sharing of bread and wine in a sign of fellowship which is characteristic of messianic banquets.


    • They paid Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus.
    • They brought false witnesses to accuse him of blasphemy before the Sanhedrin
    • They framed a treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before Pilate.  Treason carried a death sentence.
    • They employed armed people and Roman soldiers to deal with those who fight for Jesus
    • They blackmailed Pilate into accepting their demands to have Jesus crucified
    • They organized a mob to shout for the death of Jesus and release of Barnabas.
    • They crucified Him when they got permission from Pilate.


Jesus was innocent

Christians should not be intimidated

Christians should do what is pleasing to God and not what pleases fellow human beings

Christians should strive for fairness regardless of the cost

Christians should not misuse their power

Jesus is the messiah.



    • He appeared to the disciples on the way to Emmaus.
    • He appeared to the eleven disciples
    • Two angles told the women that Jesus had risen


  • It was a way of preparing them for His coming death and resurrection
  • By washing their feet Jesus taught them about humility and need to serve others
  • It was a good opportunity for Jesus to appoint a leader among them.  He gave Simon the mandate of leading others
  • It was a way of fellowshipping with them by eating with them
  • Eating together united the disciples
  • During the last supper Jesus predicted Peter’s Denial
  • It was a way of participating in the celebration of the Passover
  • It symbolized the heavenly banquet that will be shared by God’s people in his kingdom.


  • The disciples of Jesus asked Jesus when wanted them to prepare for the Passover feast
  • Two disciples were instructed to go to the city
  • They were to follow the man into the house which he would enter
  • They followed Jesus instructions
  • When they entered the house they asked the owner to show them the room where Jesus and disciples would celebrate the Passover
  • They prepared the Passover meal
  • In the evening Jesus came with his disciples to celebrate the Passover meal

Greed for money

He was an informer of the Jewish authorities

He was overcome by the power of the evil one

He lacked the moral courage to stand by Jesus during His moment of tribulation

He was disappointed by Jesus’ stress on a spiritual kingdom rather than a political one.



  1. a) Events that took place on the Mount of Olives before the arrested of Jesus.
  • Jesus told the disciples to pray
  • Jesus moved a distance away from the disciples
  • Jesus knelt down and prayed
  • An angel from heaven strengthened him
  • The disciples fell asleep
  • Jesus awoke the disciples
  • There came a crowd led by Judas one of his twelve disciples
  • Judas wanted to kiss Jesus
  • One of the disciples struck off a slave’s ear.
  • Jesus asked the religious leaders why they had come to arrest him as if he was a criminal.



  • Peter was afraid of being arrested/killed
  • He was overcome by the devil/Satan
  • The denial had been predicted by Jesus
  • Peter was confused by the turn of events
  • He was disappointed by the fact that Jesus did not fight back
  • He lacked faith in Jesus
  • He had no support/solidarity with other disciples



  1. c) The importance of the death of Jesus to Christians
  • Through the death of Jesus, Christians are forgiven their sins
  • Christians are not supposed to make animals sacrifices to God
  • It demonstrates God’s love for human beings
  • Christians have a personal relationship with God
  • Christians are able to commit themselves to the wil of God.
  • It enables Christians to face death with courage
  • Through his death, salvation/eternal life is availed to all people
  • He has become their everlasting high priest by offering his own body.


  1. a)        How Jesus celebrated the last supper with disciples.
  2. i) Jesus sat with his disciples at one table
  3. ii) He told them that he had desired to have the meal with them

iii)        He took the cup, gave thanks and asked the disciples to share

  1. iv) He also took bread, gave thanks, broke it and gave to them
  2. v) He explained to them the meaning of the bread and wine/the bread was his

body/the wine was his blood that would seal the new covenant.

  1. vi) He commanded the disciples to hold the ritual in memory of him

vii)       He informed them that they would be betrayed by one of them

viii)      He taught the disciples qualities of good leadership/humility /service to


  1. ix) He told Simon that he would be tested by Satan/He informed him that he

had already prayed for him

  1. x) He asked Simon/Peter that he would deny him three times before the cock crowed
  2. xi) Jesus told Peter that he would deny him three times before the cock crowed

xii)       He commanded the disciples to acquire swords/have their own

provisions/personal belongings                                              7×1= 7mks)


  1. b) Lessons Christians learn from incident Jesus went to pray with His disciples on Mount Olives.
  2. i) They should be prayerful
  3. ii) They should put God’s will first/desire God’s will to be done in their lives.

iii)        Prayer helps one to overcome temptations/difficult situations

  1. iv) They should depend on God for strength/support.
  2. v) They should encourage others in their weaknesses.
  3. vi) They should be ready to suffer for God’s sake

vii)       They should be watchful/alert for the enemy strikes when they lest expect it.

viii)      They need to have close friends/associates that one can lean on.      (5×1)=5


  1. c) Reasons why the disciples found it difficult to believe that Jesus had resurrected.
  2. i) The message was first taken to them by women who were regarded lowly

in society;  hence it seemed an idle talk.

  1. ii) They had witnessed the helplessness of Jesus at the time of crucifixion,

hence had lost hope in him.

iii)        They had witnessed the burial could not imagine how the stone could not

imagine how the stone could be rolled away from the tomb.

  1. iv) They felt ashamed for having denied betrayed him, hence wished that it

was not true.

  1. v) They had not understood the teaching of Jesus which indicated that he

would resurrect on the third day.

  1. vi) It was a new experience they had never seen / heard of people coming to

life after death on their own.

vii)       They lacked faith in the teachings of Christ.

viii)      They had expected a political messiah who was to die in dignity/would not


4×2=    mks


  • it is the basis of their faith
  • It gives them hope for eternal life
  • Through it dealt had been conquered
  • It gives Christians courage to face sufferings and death
  • It led to the coming of the Holy spirit
  • It is the basis of Christian teachings.
  • It is a fulfillment of Jesus promises to the disciples
  • It confirms that Jesus is a like
  • Last supper
  • Common meal
  • The lord’s table
  • The Eucharist
  • Holy mass
  • Blessed sacrament
  • He was afraid of the Jews revolt since it was his duty to maintain peace in his territory in accordance with the Roman Emperor.
  • He did not want to be disloyal to the roman Emperor after learning that Jesus was accused of treason.
  • He washed his hands after realizing that Jesus was the son of god
  • His wife had also cautioned about Jesus’ innocence.  Pilate himself had found no evidence to convict Jesus.
  • He predicted his death three times
  • He taught his disciples to be strong and firm in their faith
  • During his transfiguration when he was together with Moses and Elijah he talked about it.
  • He traveled to Jerusalem where it could take place
  • The Jewish leaders paid Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus
  • They brought false witnesses to accuse him for blasphemy
  • They framed a treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before Pilate
  • They blackmailed Pilate into accepting the demands to have Jesus when he appeared before Pilate
  • They organized a bomb to shout for the death of Jesus and the release of Barnabas
  • They crucified him when they got permission from Pilate
  • The disciples asked Jesus where he wanted the supper prepared
  • Tow disciples were instructed to follow a man carrying a jar of water to the house he would enter
  • They asked to be shown the roam where the feast would be celebrated
  • They prepared the Passover meal
  • In the evening Jesus came with the other disciples to celebrate the Passover meal.

  • The Holy communication is one of the sacraments of the church e.g. catholic church.
  • To receive spiritual nourishment
  • To celebrate their acceptance of Jesus Christ by listening to his word and sharing acceptance of Jesus Christ by listening to his word and sharing in the breaking of bread.
  • It is an expression of Christian faith and hope in Jesus Christ
  • It is celebrated as a thanksgiving to god for everything accomplished in salvation
  • It reminds of Christ’s presence constantly
  • It reminds of Christ’s presence constantly
  • It is celebrated in recognition of Christ’s love of mankind
  • It is in obedience to the command of Jesus
  • Sharing of bread and wine is a demonstration of the unit of the participants with one another and with Christ.
  • Partaking of the meal symbolizes the sealing of the new covenant
  • Partakers receive reassurance of the forgiveness of sins.



  • They considered Jesus’ claim to be the son of God blasphemous
  • They Jesus pretence of messiah-ship
  • They considered Jesus as a false prophet
  • Jesus had attacked the temple worship as managed by the Jewish leaders
  • They claimed that Jesus had committed the crime of sedition against the Roman Empire.


  • After Jesus was arrested he was taken before the high priest where the Sanhedrin tried him
  • Jesus was then taken before Pilate and accused of misleading people telling people not to pay taxes and claiming to be king.
  • Pilate did not find a good reason to condemn Jesus he therefore referred him to Herod.
  • Herod tried to make Jesus perform a miracle unsuccessfully.  He had Jesus sent back to Pilate
  • Pilate gathered the chief priest leaders and other people and declared Jesus innocent
  • Pilate wished to release Jesus and made several attempts to do so.
  • The people pressurized Pilate to condemn Jesus to death
  • The soldiers made a crown of thorns and put on Jesus
  • They led Jesus to the place of crucifixion
  • On the way Jesus was helped to carry the cross by Simon of Cyrene.
  • Jesus was crucified with two other people
  • Jesus clothes were stripped off him and soldiers divided the clothes among themselves
  • One criminal told Jesus to remember him while the other one mocked him
  • At the sixth hour extra-ordinary deeds occurred.  These included darkness and the temple curtain split into two.
  • Jesus called out committing his spirit to god and died.
  • Joseph of Arimathea asked for his body and wrapped it in linen and buried in a tomb.


  • The crucifixion of the Lord on the cross had been prophesied
  • The Old Testament prophecies had predicted the tribulations Jesus Christ would encounter be ridiculed, scolded, scourged and finally killed.
  • It had been prophesied there would be total darkness and this happened when darkness befall the whole place.
  • His burial had been prophesies and was fulfilled when Joseph of Arimathea asked for his body in order to bury Him
  • The curtain of the temple also cut into two as had been predicted that people would gain entry to God’s holiness without going through intermediaries
  • It had been prophesied that he would share the fate of criminals.  He was crucified with two robbers
  • His clothes were divided as per the prophecies.






  • Praying e.g. individual, congregational
  • Decision making in the church/solving issues and problems
  • Faith healing/healing the sick
  • Speaking in tongues
  • Singing and dancing /music
  • Preaching/teaching
  • Giving of offertory and aims /sadaka
  • Condemning on the prophetic ministry of the church
  • Hold fellowship meeting/bible study/reading the bible
  • Celebrating of sacraments e.g. Eucharist/Lords supper
  • Bringing new converts to the church
  • Pastoral care and consulting
  • Working together of the churches/ecumenism/co-operation
  • Writing Christian literature e.g. books/pamphlets/magazines
  • Confessions of sins/reconciliations
  • Education/giving instructions.


    • Jesus was from Nazareth
    • Jesus had a divine nature
    • Jesus has a human nature
    • Jesus was attested by god to work miracles and wonders through the Holy Spirit.
    • Jesus death/crucifixion was according to God’s plan
    • God raised Jesus from the dead
    • Jesus conquered death/has victory over death/overcome death
    • The death and resurrection of Jesus fulfill the prophecy of David foretold the death and resurrection of Jesus
    • God has made Jesus both Lord and Christ/Messiah.




    • It is a gift of the Holy Spirit
    • It is the most important gift of the Holy spirit
    • It is patient
    • It is kind
    • Not jealous
    • Not conceited/proud/boastful
    • Not jealous
    • Not conceited/proud/boastful
    • Not ill-mannered
    • Not selfish/it is generous
    • Not selfish/it generous
    • Not irritable/grudge
    • Not happy with evils
    • Does not keep wrongs
    • Not happy with truth
    • It never gives up
    • Its never gives up
    • Its faith, hope and patience never fail
    • It is eternal

    Cheating that one has a certain gift of the Holy spirit

    Commercialization of the gifts /people are asked pay money before being prayed .

    False interpretation of the Bible/prophecy/prediction of the future.

    Un scrupulous Christian may impart demoniac powers on innocent faithful

    Some Christians who possesses the gifts of Holy spirit develop pride/superiority complex selfishness

    Wrong use of the gifts of the Holy spirit where faithful get into ecstasy/trance which may lead to injuries.

    Distinguishing oneself as a person with a special call/preacher with an intention of exploiting others/situations





    Performing miracles


    Distinguishing between spirits

    Interpretation of tongues

    Speaking in tongues

    He was filled with the power of the Holy spirit

    Was courageous/bold/strengthened /increased in faith

    Preached the word/testified

    Remembered scriptures of the Old Testament i.e Joel 23

    Made wise decisions /advised people

    Baptized new converts/300

    He led the other disciples/spokesman /leader of the church


    The holy spirit is a counselor/helper

    He comforts

    He teaches

    He guides

    He judges/convicts the world

    He is the spirit of truth

    He is a companion

    He strengthens

    He empowers

    He empowers

    He reminds/convinces people on righteousness

    He glorifies Jesus Christ

    He reveals the things of God /reveal things to come

    • He told the people that the disciples were not drunk
    • They were filled by the Holy spirit as fulfillment of God’s prophecy
    • That Jesus was the son of God
    • God’s power was seen in the miracles, signs and wonders performed by Jesus.
    • Jesus had been killed by the Jews because of their wickedness
    • God raised Jesus back to life
    • Jesus was descendant of David
    • That Jesus ascended to heaven and is at the right hand of God.
    • Jesus is the Lord/Christ
    • He called the people to repent their sins so as to be forgiven
    • They were to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.
    1. 2006:.
    • The people who had the gifts of speaking in tongues despised those who did not have.
    • There was competition in speaking in tongues
    • There was no interpretation of tongues hence messages were not understood
    • People did not show love to one another as they used the gifts of the Holy spirit
    • There was disorder/confusion in worship as people with different gifts tried to outdo one another
    • People did not use the growth/ development of the church
    • Gifts such as prophecy/teaching/preaching/preaching were looked down upon.



    1. Ways in which the Holy Spirit was manifested on the day of Pentecost.


    • Through a sound from heaven
    • Like a mighty rushing wind
    • As tongues of fire resting on each disciple
    • By the disciples being able to speak in different languages
    • By the disciples being able to speak in different languages
    • By Peter becoming courageous to preach
    • By many people being convicted of their sins
    • By many people repenting their wrongdoings


    1. b) How the gifts of the Holy spirit are misused in the church to day
    • People demand favours/payment for performing miracles
    • People claim to be under the influence of the Holy spirit when they are not
    • There is too much emphasis on speaking in tongues at the expense of other gifts.
    • Those who have the gifts of the holy spirit are proud/boastful/look down upon others
    • People misinterpret the Bible/confuse others while claiming to the under the influence of the Holy Spirit.
    • Individuals cause divisions/splinter groups in the church claiming that the Holy Spirit has inspired them to start new churches/ministries
    • Sometimes gifts of the Holy Spirit are expressed in a disorderly manner in the church.
    • People use the gifts for self glorification
    • People speak in tongues without an interpreter hence creating misunderstanding
    • People use the gifts to instill fear/intimidate others.

    1. a) The fruit of the Holy Spirit as taught by Saul Paul (Galatians 5: 22-23)
      1. Love
      2. Joy
      3. Peace
      4. Kindness
      5. Goodness
      6. Self Control
      7. Gentleness
      8. Patience
      9. Faithfulness


    • Love
    • Peace
    • Patience
    • Kindness
    • Faithfulness
    • Self control
    • Goodness
    • Gentleness
    • Show their love and compassion to one another by supporting those who have been affected by HIV and AIDS
    • Christians show that their kindness by caring about non-believers and preaching the gospel to them
    • They help in working for peace where there is conflict
    • They have shown faithfulness when there seems to be despair so that others have known that God care for all.
    • Christians have shown self control when they have been accused falsely



    • When the disciples were all praying there was a violent wind which filled the house
    • The believers saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest upon each one of them
    • The believers spoke in other tongues
    • The apostle Peter was enabled by the Holy Spirit to be bold and he explained to the people the event that had just been witnessed.
    • About 3,000 people repented and were baptized


    • The people who had the gifts of speaking in tongues despised those who did not have
    • There was no interpretation of tongues hence messages were not understood.
    • People did not show love to one another as they sued the gifts of the Holy Spirit.
    • There was disorder/confusion in worship as people with different fits tries to outdo one another.
    • People did not use their gifts for the growth/development of the church
    • Gifts such as prophecy/teaching/preaching were looked down upon.




    • Selfishness/agreed for money by some Christians.
    • Rivalry/competition for leadership positions/agreed for power
    • Misinterpretation by some Christians of work of the Holy Spirit.
    • Arrogance/pride by some Christians
    • Corruption in the church
    • Failure by the church leaders to live according to the law of God/their failure to live exemplary lives
    • Lack of concern by some Christians about the plight of others
    • Misinterpretation of the Bible/doctrinal differences.
    • Misuse of church funds/power by some leaders
    • Lack of transparency/accountability in running church affairs.
    • Political interference
    • Sexism/women are not involved in decision making/they are under-represented
    • Tribalism
    • Denominational differences
    • They met for prayers/prayed together in fellowship
    • They prayed for one another/for those in difficulties
    • They shared their belongings/property with one another/lived together.
    • They sold their property and distributed the money among themselves/according to each individuals needs.
    • They celebrated the holy communion together
    • They showed concern to /helped the less fortunate e.g widows
    • They welcomed each other to their homes/offered hospitality to other Christians in their homes
    • They solved problems/disputes affecting the church e.g. council of Jerusalem
    • Winning converts/accepting members to the church without discrimination e.g. gender, race.
    • Preached the same gospel of Jesus Christ
    • They removed divisive traditions/customs for the membership of the church.
    • Churches in different places kept in touch with each other through visit/missionary work
    • Churches in different places kept in touch with each other through visit.
    • Churches in the area sent help to the churches that were in need e.g. famine relief
    • The unity of the church was demonstrated through the work of the Holy spirit among Christians
    • Different interpretation of the Bible believes/holier than thou attitudes.
    • Differences due to historical legacy based on foundation principles/origin
    • Competition to win more converts to supersede the others
    • Lack of equity in resources which make some churches more developed than others
    • Greed to lead which make the various level of leadership uncooperative
    • Differences in the acquisition of church wealth
    • Differences arising from appointments of women as preachers
    • Differences due to the issue of acceptable Christians norms
    • In order to promote oneness of Christ
    • To share the scarce resources/minimize expenses.
    • In order to achieve effective evangelism/ministry
    • In order to adopt a common attitude to the integration of African culture in worship
    • To prevent the formation of splinter groups/cults
    • To reduce the internal wrangling
    • In order to have a common stand in dealing with issues affecting the society

    (education/constitutional review/medical care)

    1. a)
    • They ignored the significance of feast taken as an ordinary meal
    • It led to drunkenness/disorderliness
    • It did not want to unite believers/created divisions in the church
    • It led to the oppression of the poor Christians/rich showed off
    • They took it when they were unworthy/profaned it.
    • They did not seek god’s blessings/gave thanks.
    1. b)
    • Reminds them of the death and resurrection of Jesus
    • Proclaims the death and resurrection of Christ until it comes
    • Unites the believers
    • Helps them to rededicate  themselves /confess/pray
    • Reminds them of God’s love for humanity/strengthen their faith.
    • It is a thanks giving for God’s saving act.
    • It symbolizes the body and blood of Jesus
    • It is a foretaste of the second coming of Christ
    • In obedience of Jesus commands
    • It is a sign of the new covenant sealed in the blood of Jesus Christ.

    1. a) The teaching of Jesus about the unit of believers from the vine and the


      1. God is the vine dresser/Jesus is the true vine
      2. The followers of Jesus/the Christians are the branches.
      3. Christians are related to God through Jesus
      4. The unfaithful Christians are the unfruitful branches which are cut away/destroyed
      5. The faithful Christians/fruitful branches are pruned so as to produce more fruit
      6. Christians can only bear fruits /do good things if they remain united to Christ
      7. Through Christ all Christians are joined to one another.
      8. Christians should rely on God for all providence
      9. Love is [passed on to the Christians from god through Christ
      10. Christians should observe/keep Gods commandments.

    4 x2 =8mks

    1. b) Ways in which Christians can prevent division in the church in Kenya


    1. Treat each other with love
    2. Avoid discriminations/segregations/tribalism in the church
    • Preach/teach the word of God/bible truths to believers
    1. Assist those in problems/poor/the less fortunate/the needy
    2. Practice humility/avoid arrogance
    3. Openly discuss issues affecting the church/respect the opinions of thither people.
    • Pray for one another/problems affecting the church
    • Practice transparent leadership style.
    1. Give financial reports within acceptable period of time
    2. Follow the church doctrines/constitutions/manuals/educate members on church procedures.
    3. Repent/ask for forgiveness whenever they are wrong/accept their mistakes
    • Preparing a budget annually/seasonally ensuring that the resources are well utilized.
    • Guidance and counseling.

    7×1= 7mks


    • the church
    • the bride
    • the body of Christ
    • vine and the branches
    • the people of god
    • Abrahams descendants were referred to as the people of god
    • Follows of Christ are described as the people of God
    • They are people chooses by God
    • They are special chosen race
    • They are a royal priesthood. They perform priestly tasks such as preaching, conducting church services and services
    • They are a holy nation
    • They are Gods own people
    • They are people who have received Gods mercy
    • They practice justice, love, perseverance, tolerance and appreciation for other Christians.
    • They called to declare the deeds of God


    • The  bride represents the believers in Christ (Christ) and they are united to Christ who is the bride groom
    • The church is to be committed to Christ, just as the bride  is to the  bride groom. Christians as the  bride of God should  be pure and not corrupted in sin
    • Gods relationship to his people is perfect and will lat eternally
    • The brides patience  in the union with Christ will not be in vain. God  will wipe every tear from peoples eyes. There will be no death, mourning or pain
    • Committed  Christians will be taken to anew home(heaven),just as the bride is taken home by the husband


    • Vine is Jesus
    • Vine dresser is God
    • Branches are believers
    • Branches that do not bear fruit are believers who are unfaithful to God
    • Believer who remain with Christ will bear fruits otherwise  those that do not will be pruned and thrown in eternal fire
    • Vine who is the  Christ links us  with God
    • Vine/Christ  brings a relationship  of love between God and men.



    • The  of Christ  can be compared to the functions of  the human body. Just as there is unity  among various body parts  so members of the body of Christ must be united
    • God has arranged all parts of the body so that they are all interdependent similarly, all gifts are important and for the benefit and enrichment of all
    • There should be no divisions in the church since all believers are members of the body of Christ so they should live a life worth god’s calling.
    • Christ ascension resulted in the fulfillment of God’s purpose for his people.  The enemy has been defeated so they are all united in Christ in the church.
    • Jesus gave gifs through the Holy spirit to those who belong to him.  They all work together to edify the church to enhance the unity in the body of Christ.






    Nathan’s prophecy to David that god will make his (David’s) descendant to rule over Israel/forever is affirmed by the angel Gabriel during the annunciation (Luke 1: 32)

    • The conception of Mary fulfils the prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 7: 14)
    • Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem of Judah as had been prophesied by the prophet of Micah
    • When Jesus taught in the Synagogue in Nazareth at the beginning of this ministry, he quoted from Isaiah 61: 1-2 to affirm that he was the Messiah that Isaiah talks about when John sent his disciples to Jesus to enquire whether he was the Messiah.
    • The Messianic age is foretold in the Old Testament, is enacted by Jesus when he turns water into wine at Cana in Galilee/other miracles.
    • Through  miracles Jesus shared the suffering of mankind, thus fulfilling the prophecy of the suffering servant (Isaiah 53:4)
    • The old Testament prophecy of the peaceful king is fulfilled by Jesus during the triumphant entry when he enters Jerusalem riding on a donkey.  Isaiah 62:11
    • The rejection and death of Jesus were foretold in the old testament Psalms 118: 22-23
    • The new covenant foretold by Jeremiah is fulfilled by Jesus during the last supper/death /resurrection/forgiveness of sins
    • Any other relevant fulfillment.
    1. People became concerned with the external practices/observances/their

    Hearts were far from God/hypocrisy

    • Religion became too commercialized/money could be used to buy favours from God.
    • People broke the ten commandments/disobeyed God’s commands
    • People forgot the saving mighty works of God/worshipped foreign gods e.g. Baal, Asherah, idols
    • The poor were hated, despised/considered outcasts
    • The widows/orphans were neglected
    • People believed in false prophets/prophecies
    • People practiced syncretism.


    • A true prophet must have been called
    • A true prophet communicated God’s message to the people
    • A true prophet spoke with authority
    • A true prophet understood the nature of their prophecies
    • A true prophet acknowledged only one god
    • A true prophet received revelations in the form of dreams, visions and symbolic actions,
    • Their prophecies came to pass
    • They understood the nature of their prophecies
    • They proclaimed punishment and rewards to individual and to the whole nation
    • Their reductions were fulfilled
    • They spoke on behalf of god/God’s messengers/mouth pieces
    • They foretold the future events
    • They guided/counseled the kings
    • They called people back to repentance/gave messages of hope
    • They reminded the people about the covenant
    • They condemned the evil in society
    • They warned the people of God’s  judgment
    • They made the people understand the nature of god.
    • They offered sacrifices to god
    • The anointed kings
    • They interpret the vision dreams from God/current events
    1. a)         Characteristics of false prophets in the Old Testament.
      1. They asked for payment for their services/material gains.
      2. They were self appointed/had no call from god
      3. Their prophecies were not fulfilled
      4. They spoke what the people wanted to hear/wanted to please the people
      5. They raised false confidence among the people
      6. They did not speak with authority when challenged
      7. They spoke about doctrines/teachings that were contrary to the covenant
      8. Their raised false confidence among the people
      9. They did not speak with authority when challenged.
      10. They spoke about doctrines/teachings that were contrary to the covenant
      11. Their lives were not exemplary/hypocrites
      12. They wanted favours from the kings
      13. They were not ready to suffer for the truth
      14. They undermined the work of the prophets


    1. Differences between prophet in the Old Testament and traditional African
    1. Communities. The Old Testament prophets stresses the worship of one God/monotheism while in some traditional African communities, prophets recognized many gods/goddesses.
    2. The old testament received their power, guidance directly from god while the African traditional prophets got their power from god through the living dead/spirits
    • The old testament prophets faced opposition from their people while traditional African prophets were confined to their ethnic communities
    1. The Old Testament prophets faced opposition from their people while the traditional African prophets were confined to their ethnic communities.
    2. The work of OT prophets were recorded and reserved while ATR was handed over through oral traditions.


    • They acted as mediators between god and people
    • God spoke to prophets to communicate information about the future
    • They preached practical monotheism and condemned idolatry
    • They condemned all forms of social evils and ritual sins
    • They acted as the conscience of kings
    • They gave people hope of being restored to god if they repented their sins.


    • Christians should use the gift of prophesy for the glory of God
    • Christians like Old testament prophets should always stand for truth
    • Christians should always condemn the social political and economic evils such as corruption in the society
    • Christians like the Old Testament prophets should lead holy lives
    • They should expect persecution in their work as God’s messengers.  Old Testament prophets like Jeremiah were rejected and persecuted by their own people.
    • Christians like the Old testament prophets should be ready to obey God’s call
    • Christians should realize that god is universal hence they should reach out to all people.
    • Lyrics
    • Prose narratives
    • Sermons
    • Letters-Jeremiah
    • Songs/poems
    • Lamentations
    • Lifestyles e.g. in Hosea
    • Miracles e.g. Moses and Elijah
    • They followed their own imaginations and filled people with false hope
    • False prophets had no personal knowledge of god.  They received no visions or dreams from god.
    • The false prophets sued evil forces like magic to call upon the spirits.
    • They experienced themselves without authority before god and men
    • Their prophecies were not in line with the divine revelations
    • False prophets prophesied for payment and this was against the covenant that the Israelites had with God.
    • They derived materials benefits from the prophecies which pleased their clients
    • They served other gods and not Yahweh e.g. Baal.
    • They told their clients what they wanted to hear and not true things.




    Selling into slavery those who could not pay their debts

    The oppression of the poor and the weak

    Sexual immorality

    Hypocrisy/practicing empty religious, rituals when people’s hearts are far from it

    Exploitation of the poor.  A state where the poor were poorer and the rich ere becoming rather

    Telling lies/dishonesty

    Hypocrisy practicing empty religious, rituals when people’s hearts are far from it

    Exploitation of the poor.  A state where the poor were poorer and the rich were becoming richer

    Telling lies/dishonesty

    Misusing the house of God/profaning/desecration of the temple

    III-treating the Nazarenes and the prophets

    Idol worship

    Injustice on the poor, weak and down trodden


    Cheating in business by use of false scales


    Vision of a great swarm of locusts

    Vision of a great fire

    Vision of a crooked wall

    Vision of a basket of fruits

    Vision of the destruction of the altar.

    • They gave empty sacrifices which did not reflect holy lives
    • They practical syncretism
    • There was no sincerity in worship/hypocrisy
    • They made idols/worship/hypocrisy
    • They made idols /worshipped idols
    • They built many high places of worship for idols
    • They misused the temple by feasting/drinking
    • They refused to listen to the prophets of god/listened to false prophets
    • They misused the Sabbath
    • They practiced temple prostitution
    1. a) Teachings of prophet Amos on the day of the Lord
    2. i) It will be a day of terror and disaster
    3. ii) God will punish the Israelites for their disobedience/He will remember their evil


    iii)        The land shall tremble/there will be earthquakes

    1. iv) People will mourn /no happiness
    2. v) There will be darkness at noon
    3. vi) the feasts and festivals will not be joyful

    vii)      People will thirst/hunger for the word of God

    viii)      People will faint in the process of searching for the word of God

    1. ix) It will be a day of disappointment to the Israelites
    2. x) The wicked will not escape God’s judgment.

    1. b) Ways in which Christians can help the church leaders to perform their duties  


    1. i) Giving financial /material help
    2. ii) advising/counseling them on various issues

    iii)        Encouraging them in their work

    1. iv) Participating fully in church activities/functions
    2. v) Giving tithes and offerings faithfully
    3. vi) Praying for them

    vii)       Respecting them

    viii)      Practicing/obeying the word of God

    1. ix) Defending them against unfair criticism.
    2. x) Providing training opportunities for them


    1. a) The teaching of prophet Amos on social justice and responsibility.
    2. i) The righteous could be sold for silver and the needy for a pair of shoes.
    3. ii) The rich woman led luxurious lives and were unkind to the poor

    iii)        The rich woman encouraged their husbands to exploit the poor

    1. iv) The rich people took an excess share of the harvest from the farmers
    2. v) The rulers lived luxurious lives in good houses as the poor suffered thus

    God would send them into exile.

    1. vi) The rulers were arrogant, trusted in material things, drunk wine when the

    poor had nothing to eat.

    vii)      The judges were corrupt and took bribes from the rich

    viii)      The wealthy merchants cheated the poor by using scales/selling the refuse

    1. ix) the Israelites indulged in wine drinking and forced even those not supposed to drink, to do so


    1. x) Those who spoke the truth were hated
    2. xi) Prophet Amos advised the prople to seek good and avoid evil

    xii)       The Israelites indulged in sexual immorality, they provoked the almighty


    xiii)      He advised against the misuse of the garments taken in pledge


    xiv)      Amos advised against robbery with violence.

    8 x 1=8 mks)

    1. b) How the church is promoting social justice in Kenya today

    Providing education to the public on social justice/civic education

    By respecting and following the laws of the country as laid down by the Government

    By providing shelter to the needy

    It preaches on social justice

    The church prays for social justice in the country

    The church gives food/clothing to the affected/aims/money

    It advices the government on the need for the practice of justice in society

    The church condemns preaching against/pointing out/social injustice in the society.                                         6×1=6mks

    6          a)

    There was clan distinction in Israel which was not allowed by the covenant way of life.

    They did not respect the authority of God as their leaders

    There were murder cases/crimes, which led to loss of life

    The poor were oppressed by the rich/exploited them

    There was increased immorality where there was prostitution and increases adultery


    God is universal and expects his people to be morally and spiritually upright by obeying his commandments

    Their behabiour should match their religious piety

    Christians should shun evil and live according to God’s will

    Christians should serve God only to avoid judgment of them

    They should live exemplary life to give others courage to join the worship of god

    Christians may fund themselves in hopeless and helpless situation hence no hope for the future.




    An ordinary person from a simple family-shows God can use any person regardless of status to do his work

    As a shepherd, he was prepared for his prophetic career to guid a different kind of flock

    He was a leader of other herdsman the leadership qualities helped him as a prophet

    He cultivated sycamore trees-  he was hard working and could do more than one job at a time

    He was from Judah and was sent to Israel to prove that the two kingdoms despite political divisions were still bound together by covenant.


    • The righteous were being sold for silver and the needy for a pair of shoes
    • Taking of the poor man’s garment/ millstone as guarantee for goods borrowed.
    • Women of Samaria nagged their husbands to exploit the poor as to meet and maintain their lifestyles.
    • The rich took excessive share of harvest from the farmers.
    • The rulers spent time drinking wine when the poor lacked the most basic need.
    • The poor were denied justice in the law courts
    • The poor were denied justice in the law courts
    • The temple prostitutes were from poor families
    • The poor made to work on the hand owned by the rich very little pay.


    God’s law was to be obeyed so that their relationship with God  and their fellow human beings was good.

    Israelites were to respect other because they were cheated in the image of god

    Amos condemned slavery where the poor and needy were enslaved by the rich

    Amos condemned sexual immorality and temple prostitution practiced as form of idol worship.

    Amos condemned robbery and violence that made the city insecure

    Amos condemned bribery and corruption that were practiced in courts

    Amos condemned agreed and excessive luxury among the few rich in Israel

    Amos condemned self-indulgence and false sense of security

    Amos condemned cheating in business.






    • Towards the end of the seventh century B.C the Babylonians had become the most powerful nation in the Middle east through conquest.
    • The Israelites had forsaken the covenant way of life with the neighbours/the leaders of the people were corrupt/there was social injustice/lack of moral responsibility/accountability
    • The Israelites had broken the covenant relationship with God by forsaking the religion of their forefathers/by worshipping idols/practicing syncretism
    • Intermarriages with non-Israelites brought in foreign influence which made the Israelites run away from Yahweh to other Gods
    • The Israelites refused to listen to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah/prophets who tried to bring the people back to the covenant way of life
    • The Israelites also persecuted the prophets of Yahweh (Jeremiah)when they challenged them about their way of life/hypocrisy in order to silence them
    • The Israelites failure to take the opportunity given to them by the prophets to respect
    • Israelites failure to take the opportunity given to them by the prophets to respect
    • Israel had experienced a succession of weak rulers who did nothing to return the people to the covenant way of life.
    • In 603 B.C Nebuchadnezzar/Babylonians defeated the Egyptians at Carchemish leaving no obstacle to prevent the Babylonians from marching worth.
    • The Babylonians army capture Judah/the cities/forced king Johaiakim to accept Babylonians control
    • After three years of Babylonians rule, king Hohaiakim tried to overthrow the Babylonians rule (but he died suddenly) he was succeeded by the his son Jehoakim
    • The Babylonians army returned to Judah and surrounded the city of Jerusalem.
    • In 589 B.C the Babylonian army returned to Judah and surrounded the city of Jerusalem
    • In 587 B.C, the Babylonians broke into the city/destroyed the city/the temple of Jerusalem/most of the temple who survived the destruction were deported as exiles in Babylon.
    1. Jeremiah was hesitant/said he did not know how to speak
    • He was afraid
    • He was not ready
    • He felt immature because he was young
    • He had dialogue with God/talked to God
    • Jeremiah saw two visions, which changed his attitude towards Gods mission for him
    • He accepted to be sent
    1. Jeremiah taught that the Israelites would be restored.
    • When they came back from exile, they, they would be restored
    • When they came back from exile, they would prosper
    • They would live in peace
    • God would increase their number by them having many children/encouraged  to marry/get  children.
    • They would worship him alone/they would be people/he would be their God
    • They would live forever in the land God would give them
    • God would give them a king from David’s lineage who would rule wisely
    • The exile/suffering would not last forever/god had good plans for them/exile is God’s plan.
    • People would cry to God/he would answer their prayers
    • The law will be written in their prayers
    • The law will be written in their hearts
    • They will know God individually
    • Their sins will be forgiven
    • Individuals will be responsible for their own sins
    • Jeremiah encouraged them to build horses/plant gardens so as to prosper
    • They were encouraged to seek peace with their captors.
    • Jeremiah‘s purchase of land spelt out hope for the future.


    • He was arrested
    • He scroll was burnt by king Jehoiakim
    • He was thrown into cistern/well
    • He had difficulties in convincing the people that his message was true from Yahweh/faced opposition
    • He was beaten
    • He was insulted/referred /to as a traitor/mocked/ridiculed
    • He was barred from going to the temple
    • He was put in prison/dungeon/detained
    • They lacked adequate food/famine
    • Adapting to a new environment
    • Following/keeping the Babylonian officials
    • They lost their identity/discriminated
    • They were turned into refugees in Egypt, Moab, Edom, Ammon etc
    • They were not united
    • Their religious loyalty to god was undermined
    • They lacked places for worship/religious festivals
    • They were influenced into idolatry
    • There were false prophets


    • He condemned prostitution
    • He condemned tribalism
    • Corruption and bribery
    • Robbery and murder
    • Exploitation of the poor
    • Injustice denied to the poor
    • Selling of goods unfit for human consumption to the poor
    • Selling into slavery those who could not pay their debts
    • The oppression of the poor and the weak
    • Taking of bribes mostly in courts
    • Cheating in business by use of false scale.


    • The law will be written in people’s hearts and not on stone tablet
    • The new covenant will be between an individual and God/personal salvation/relationship
    • There will be individual responsibility/punishment for those who sin
    • The new covenant will be everlasting
    • The new covenant will be universal
    • There will be forgiveness of sins/they will not be remembered
    • There will be no mediators between God and individual
    • The new covenant will be fulfilled in the coming Jesus Christ.
    • They should internalize the law of God/ laws of god are their hearts
    • They should have personal relationship with God/know God personally
    • There is individual responsibility/punishment when one sins
    • There is forgiveness of sins if one repents/reconciliation
    • Christian have an everlasting relationship with God
    • Those who repent their sins have a new beginning
    • The need to have faith in God
    • They should obey/practice the law of God.
    • They learn that the new covenant is fulfilled in the coming of Jesus Christ.
    • Buying a new linen waistcloth and burying a new linen waistcloth and burying it in a cleft of the rock Jeremiah 13:1-11
    • Jeremiah was not to marry Jeremiah 16:1-18
    • The reworking of the vessels by the potter Jeremiah 18:1-17
    • The breaking of the earthen flask before the elders Jeremiah 19:1-15
    • He was shown two baskets of figs. One with good figs and another with bad figs.  Jeremiah 24: 1-10
    • Wearing of the yoke Jeremiah 27: 1-15



    1. a) The temptations of Jesus in the wilderness before he began his public ministry
    • Jesus was led into the wilderness where he stayed for forty days
    • He ate nothing and therefore he felt hungry
    • The devil asked him to command a stone to become bread if he was the son of God
    • Jesus told him that man could not live by bread alone
    • The devil took Jesus up and showed him the kingdoms of the world and asked him to worship him, so that he could give him everything
    • Jesus told the devil that only god alone is to be worshipped and served
    • The devil took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple and asked him to throw himself down for God would command angels to guard him
    • Jesus told the devil that one should not tempt God


    1. b) Lessons Christians learn from the temptations of Jesus

    They should be knowledgeable in scripture/biblical verses

    They should resist the devil

    Temptations are part and parcel of Christian life

    They should have faith in God

    They should worship God alone

    They should not put God to test

    They should not misuse the power of the Holy spirit

    They should be content with what they have

    Fasting is important in their lives.


    11)       a) significance of the symbolic act of buying land by a prophet Jeremiah

    1. It showed the people of Judah still had a future despite the coming crisis/Judas will regain freedom after congest
    2. It was an assurance that the people would be restored back to their homeland/reclaims their land
    3. It demonstrated that the people would resume their normal lives/construct homes /cultivate land/own property
    4. Divine judgment was not an end to itself
    5. Restoration was to take place at God’s own time/God was to determine when the people would be restored back.
    6. The people had to wait patiently for their return from exile.
    7. It showed that God was loving/faithful/was to keep his promise of restoration/bring them back to their ancestral land.
    8. It made them feel secure/they were not to lack anything.

    4×2 =8mks

    1. b) The suffering of prophet Jeremiah during his ministry
    1. He was rejected by his own family/relatives
    2. People made false accusations against him
    3. He was threatened with death because of speaking for God
    4. He lived a lonely and solitary life/was commanded to neither marry nor attend any social gathering
    5. His message was rejected by the Israelites
    6. He went through spiritual struggle as he saw the evil prosper while the righteous suffered
    7. He was physically assaulted/beaten
    8. The enemies attempted to kill him/He was put in muddy cistern
    9. He was humiliated in public/mocked
    10. He was imprisoned/jailed
    11. He was arrested and put on trial.


    1. c) Ways in which Christians resolve conflicts among themselves
    1. They pray over the issue/problem
    2. They offer guidance and counseling to the affected
    3. Paying visits/talking to the offender/fellowship
    4. By involving church leaders as arbitrators
    5. Forgiving the one who has wronged the other/asking for forgiveness
    6. Willingness by the offender to accept the mistakes made/accepting liability/pay for the damages
    7. Withdrawing some privileges for a period of time so that one can reform
    8. By sharing meals/eating together
    9. Through shaking of hands/accepting a greeting.        (5×1 = 5mks)



    • The old covenant was made between god and the entire community while the new covenant would be between God and individual
    • In the Old Covenant, laws were written on stone tablets and this was external but in the new covenant, the laws would be written in the hearts of the people
    • The Old Covenant, stresses on collective responsibility for sin while the new covenant an individual would be responsible for his or her sin.
    • In the old covenant, the teachers of the law and parents were expected to pass the laws to the children.  In the new covenant there would be little parental obligation for the knowledge of God is by personal experience
    • In the Old Covenant, animals were sacrificed while in the new covenant Jesus would be the ultimate sacrifice.
    • The Old covenant involved a mediator while the new covenant did not require a mediator since an individual would have a personal relationship with God.
    • In the new covenant, a man would be reconciled with God through permanent forgiveness of sin while in the old covenant, there was a temporary forgiveness of sins.
    • In the old covenant, the prophets taught the people about the will and character of God.  In the new covenant the true knowledge about the will of God would be in the hearts of the people
    • The new covenant would be based on man’s free response while the old covenant was based on enforced laws or commandments
    • The old covenant was between God and Israelites while the covenant is universal


    • People of his home town wanted to kill him
    • Members of his own family turned against him and betrayed him.
    • He was not to marry thus lived a lonely life
    • Was not supposed to join feasts or mounings to symbolize the suffering of Judah
    • Was ridiculed. Mocked and reproached wherever he went
    • Prince Pahsur had him beaten and put in stocks overnight.
    • He was arrested and imprisoned in a dungeon
    • He was put in cistern with no water
    • People ignored his prophecies
    • He was distressed because the wicked prospered and the faithless lived comfortably
    • He walked around carrying a wooden yoke-this made him tired



    After Jeremiah relayed god’s message to the people his own people and relatives plotted to kill him, this hurt and disturbed him

    He was disturbed by the fact that the wicked were prosperous and the dishonest succeeded

    He did his work faithfully and as a result people disliked and hated him.  He felt lonely and unhappy and he cursed the day he was born

    Jeremiah was mocked and laughed at by his people asking him why they were not seeing any fulfillment of what he was saying.

    When Pashur, a priest hear Jeremiah preaching, he had him beaten and locked up in the temple for a night

    Jeremiah’s prophecy of the destruction of the temple angered the people and they called him a traitor

    Jeremiah suffered more by being put into prison after he was beaten and accused of siding with the Babylonians

    He was thrown into a cistern with no water in it but only mud to die there.

    Jeremiah’s wearing of a yoke around his neck annoyed false prophets


    • King Jehoikim shed innocent blood regardless of prophetic advice
    • People practiced Baal worship/idol worship
    • Child sacrifice practiced
    • Pagan idols were set up e.g. in temple
    • Hypocrisy
    • Offering of sacrifices to idols
    • Moral decay among Israelites
    • False prophets were obeyed /respected
    • Oppression and exploitation of the poor by those in power
    • False belief about the temple
    • Social injustices


    • Christians should denounce hypocrisy e.g. shouldn’t  pretend to be upright in public yet in secret engage in corruption, sexual immorality etc.
    • Christians should speak out against modern idols like money, power drug abuse
    • Christians should condemn destruction of human life and violence in general e.g. abortion, murder/must uphold sanctify of human life
    • Christians must be aware of existence of false teaching and prophesies in their midst and should guard themselves not to fall into their traps.
    • Christians should pray for God’s guidance to distinguish true from false prophets condemn dishonesty
    • Christians should strive to be trustworthy and condemn dishonesty.
    • Christian to practice justice in their relationship with others and so preach against all forms of injustices
    • Christians should not result to witchcraft, divination or sorcery when faced with problem in life
    • Christians should proclaim divine judgment on those who refuse to obey God’s will.





    • The officials of Tekoa did not co-operate with him
    • He was ridiculed by San ballat and Tobiah.
    • He received threats of violence from the enemies
    • A trap was laid to derail his mission of rebuilding the wall
    • There was a plot to kill him
    • Insecurity from the enemies
    • False prophets tried to discourage him
    • Opposition from the Jewish nobles
    • False accusation from his enemies.
    1. a)
    • Nehemiah prayed when he learnt about the suffering of the Jews back in Judah
    • When his enemies ridiculed the Jews to discourage them from rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem
    • When he learnt about his enemies conspiracy to attack Jerusalem to stop the constructions work
    • After his condemnation of oppression of the poor, Nehemiah prayed asking God to reward him.
    • When his enemies plotted to destroy him to stop the rebuilding of the wall
    • When Sheheiah attempted to Frighten him asking him to hide in the temple because there was a plot to kill him
    • When he cleansed and re-organised the temple liturgy for effective worship of Yahweh
    • After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence


    • Prayers enable Christians to seek god’s guidance in times of difficult and when making important decisions
    • Through prayers Christians thank and praise God for his love and confess their sins
    • Prayers strengthen Christians and enable them to continue with any difficult work they may have embarked on.
    • It is through prayers, Christians can repent their needs to God
    • Prayers help Christians are able to enter into a personal relationship with God.
    • Prayers are used as elements of worship
    • Prayers is part of Christian rituals e.g. in marriage or in fellowship
    • It’s a way to communicate with god.

    1. a) Occasions when Nehemiah prayed
    1. Before asking King artaxexas to let him go back to Judah
    2. When he learnt that the Jews in Judah were suffering and the walls of Jerusalem were in ruins.
    3. When his enemies made fun of the Jews and discouraged them from building the wall of Jerusalem
    4. When the enemies conspired to attack Jerusalem to stop the construction work
    5. After he condemned the leaders for oppressing the poor
    6. When his enemies planned to harm him
    7. When he was frightened by shemaiah to hide in the temple claiming that there was a plot to kill him
    8. When he cleansed and reorganisd the temple for worship
    9. After  warning the people of Judah against violating the Sabbath law
    10. When he had chased away the son-in-law of Sanbalat
    11. After cleansing the Israelites of the foreign influence.


    1. b) Ways Nehemiah demonstrated qualities of a good leader
    1. He was hardworking/committed to his work
    2. He faced opposition/challenges courageously
    3. He prayed and consulted God in all situations
    4. He had vision/foresight for the nation/Jews
    5. He recognized other peoples’ abilities/allowed them to perform different duties.
    6. He was concerned about the life of his people
    7. He was patriotic
    8. He made wise/firm decisions in different circumstances
    9. He was honest
    10. He served as a role model/participated in the rebuilding of the wall in Jerusalem
    11. He endured persecution


    1. c) The importance of prayer in the life of a Christian today
    1. It enables one to gain power over temptations
    2. It expresses one’s obedience before god
    3. One is able to give thanks to God for the many blessings
    4. So as to ask for god’s protection/care in all that one does
    5. In order to ask for forgiveness for the wrongs done
    6. One is able to intercede for others
    7. In order to show/acknowledge god as the provider of everything
    8. So as to praise/glorify/exalt god
    9. To seek for guidance/direction for god
    10. One is able to communicate with god
    11. It expresses humility between God


    • Lack of co-operation from the nobles
    • Opposition from his enemies
    • The Jews did not observe their religious traditions
    • The temple was not honoured
    • The tithes and offerings which were supposed to take care of the Levites and singers were not being collected
    • The people broke the Sabbath law
    • The priesthood was defiled by the priests who married foreign women
    • Nehemiah received many death threats.


    • As a Pious and God fearing leader, he led the Israelites in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem
    • As a practical man, he made important decisions if the building the walls of Jerusalem
    • As a good planner, he planned his work clearly and encouraged people to work effectively
    • He used his mobilization ability to organize the people so that every area was careered for some worked, others guarded the projects others protected the builders
    • He was able to inspire the people to do what he wanted them to do
    • As a wise leader, he was able to deal with the problem of debtors and creditors to their satisfaction
    • As a patient and caring leader, helped the needy who in turn supported him and his work
    • As a great reformer, he instilled socio-economic and religious reform in the temple and on the Sabbath observance.


    • Both led prayerful lives
    • Both had compassion for their people
    • Both led in the cleansing of the temple
    • Both faced opposition during their missions
    • Both led exemplary lives
    • Both came to restore the relationship between God and men


    • He denounced marriages between Jews and foreigners
    • He purified the temple after sending away the Samaritan Tobiah who had been residing in the temple
    • He reorganized the tithing system
    • He made up a panel of four to look into the distribution of tithes to priests/Levites/musicians
    • Upheld the law of the Sabbath
    • Commanded Levites to guard the temple against traders
    • Made Jews to the loyal to mosaic law.



    Leaders should trust in god and seek his guidance.

    • Should be prayerful
    • Should have courage
    • Should work hard and be committed to their duties
    • Should set their goals and organize their activities
    • Should seek wisdom from God.
    • Should be concerned with the needy
    • Should be patriotic
    • Should seek God first and be good role model
    • Should condemn all forms of injustices in society
    • Should be honest
    • Should have a spirit of team work
    • Should have comparison..







    • In traditional African Communities marriage is a rhythm of life through which everyone must undergo. Today a person can decide to marry or not marry.
    • Procreation as a purpose for marriage is more emphasized in traditional communities than modern society where marriage is regarded complete even without children
    • Polygamous family is highly respected in Traditional encouraged
    • In Traditional society, the husband is the head of a family but in modern society, the husband and wife tend to be seen as complementary
    • Choosing a marriage partner and marriage arrangement were a collective responsibility in traditional communities but today marriage is mainly seen as an individual affairs
    • In Traditional African Communities the significance of dowry was social and religious.  Today, too much economic significance is attached to dowry
    • In Traditional African Communities people looked for a marriage partner who was hardworking /strong/healthy
    • Today marriages are highly commercialized and qualities looked for are riches, education and beauty.

    • Sex education was given to the youth in order to instill discipline
    • The youth were made aware of the dire consequences or irresponsible sex leading to pregnancy before marriage
    • Sex before marriage was prohibitive in most traditional African communities/virginity was highly valued
    • Girls who become pregnant before marriage were severally punished.
    • Young men who were found to have impregnated a girl before marriage were also punished
    • Parents were held responsible for their daughters conduct
    • During social occasions young people were supervised so that they did not misbehave.
    • There was physical separation of sexes.  They lived in separate houses
    • There were traditional African community was concerned about the moral integrity
    • Sexes were taught to respect each other


    • Drugs abuse among the youth
    • Permissiveness in the society/lack of discipline
    • Pornography from print media
    • Pornography from print media
    • Poverty which has led some to turn to commercial sex
    • Lack of proper sex education for the youth to seek consolation in sex among other things
    • The wrong role models from the adults
    • Peer group
    • Parents have abandoned their role of teaching the youth about the facts of life to the schools which are doing very little.


    • Should provide pastoral care/guidance and counseling
    • Accept them in church
    • Provide them with material help where necessary
    • Visit them
    • Pray with them involve them in church activities
    • Encourage them to get married
    • Invite them to church seminars on family life


    1. a)
    • Unfaithfulness
    • Misuse of family resources
    • Lack of communication
    • Child abuse e.g. raping, beating
    • Alcoholism/drug abuse
    • Separation of family members e.g. due to wage/labour/education
    • Denial of conjugal rights
    • Sickness e.g. AIDS, Cancer etc
    • Child delinquency
    • Lack of tolerance/forgiveness
    • Greed for wealth/self esteem
    • Religious finalism/denominational differences
    • Traditional inhibitions /influence
    • Peer group influence/permissiveness
    • Generation gap.


    • Through guidance and counseling
    • Hold seminars/conferences for couples, youths and children.
    • Through publications on Christian living e.g. magazines, books etc
    • Use of mass-media
    • Through publications on Christian living e.g. magazines, books etc
    • Use of mass-media
    • Through offering pastoral care in homes/house to house visits
    • Giving financial support to needy families
    • Offering employment to the jobless
    • Providing vocational training /skills
    • Praying for families.
    • Guided an acceptable eating habits/discipline
    • Outlined social relationships/kinship ties
    • Respect for elders /leaders
    • Maintenance of respect for God
    • Help in maintenance of dignity/integrity
    • Guided an acceptable eating habits/discourages vices such as gluttony, greediness etc
    • Create harmony /maintain law and order/promoted peace in society.


    1. a)
    • Sex before marriage-fornication
    • Sex outside marriage- adultery
    • Prostitution, bestiality
    • Homosexuality lesbianism/sodomy/oral sex
    • Pornographic literature/mass media/use of technological devices in sex
    • Masturbation, Incest
    • Rape/defilement of the underage


    • Social stigma/suffers isolation
    • Economic crises due to high rate of opportunistic diseases
    • Poverty due to medication
    • Suffers depression as they watch their person wear off
    • They condemn the person as a sinner
    • They have to exercise high hygienic standards to ensure safety of  other members
    • Suffers a drawback in their occupation as most time is spent caring for the patient
    • Struggle a lot to provide required diet for proper maintenance
    • Pretend to show love though they suffer bitterness inside themselves
    • Quarrels/misunderstanding within the family.
    • Quarrels/misunderstanding within the family
    1. a)
    • Giving bride price as a token of appreciation to bride’s family
    • Exchanged of gifts among the family members performed religious rituals
    • Held ceremonies where food and beer were shared among friends and families.
    • Exchanged visits by the families of the bride and the groom
    • Marriage negotiations were held
    • Celebrations through songs and dances
    • Oathing.
    • Virginity of bride to be proved.


    • Many children were viewed as a source of wealth.
    • Effective family planning
    • To ensure unity in the community
    • To acquire wealth through bride price
    • Children ensured security in old age
    • The more the children the longer the immorality
    • To reduce irresponsible sexual behaviour such as adultery, prostitution
    • Curb bareness
    • One’s social status was measured by the number of wives one had
    • Co-wives worked as a team to boost man’s wealth
    • To avoid getting children of one sex
    • Land was plenty to accommodate large families
    • Due to high mortality rate due to epidemics thus one needed to marry many wives
    1. a)
    • Sexual education was given t the youth
    • Girls who become pregnant before marriage were severely punished
    • Sex before marriage was prohibited
    • Parents were held responsible for their conduct
    • During social occasions such as dances, youths were supported so that they did not misbehave
    • There was physical separation of sexes, boys and girls lives separately
    • There was physical taboos, rules and regulations on sex relationships
    • There was act of early marriage
    • There was act of early marriage
    • The whole community was concerned about the moral fibre.
    • The youths were made aware of the consequences of irresponsible sex
    • Pregnant girls were forced to marry old men in the community
    • The man who was found responsible for the pregnancy was forced to marry the girl


    • When sexual demand is not met in marriage relationship
    • Peer group influence and pressure
    • Separation due to employment or divorce may cause prostitution to the affected as he may need company for sexual relationship
    • Pornographic literature and films makes others to indulge  in the evil
    • Lack of income to earn a living
    • Employment –some women leave their rural home to search for jobs and if they fail they are forced to result to prostitution
    • Extreme poverty to an individual.


    • they helped pregnant women in delivery services
    • The midwives took care of the weak mother and child
    • They gave advice to the parents of the mother on ways of bringing up the child
    1. a)
    • A relative/mediator identifies a girl from a family and suggests to the family of the young man
    • Parents make decisions for their children when still young
    • Parents make decisions for their children when still young
    • Parents of the boy visits the parents of a girl to ask for her hand in marriage
    • The young people could court and choose who to marry
    • The first wife chooses a girl for her husband
    • Bride dowry could be paid to a family well in advance
    • A young girl can be given as a gift to another family
    • Some exchange the girls from the two families
    • One could inherit a brother’s wife
    • A young girl could be given as a way of settling disputes/replace the one who had died /paying debits.


    • Marriage is permanent/highly valued
    • There is investigation concerning the family to be involved in the marriages/courtship allowed in some communities
    • Many people are involved in marriage negotiations
    • The wife belonged to the husband and the larger communities
    • Payment of dowry and children seal the marriage
    • Elaborate marriage procedures makes it difficult for one to divorce
    • Fear of paying fines/returning bride wealth in case divorce
    • Marriage disputes are handled by parent/elders
    • In case of bareness/impotence an alternative is sought e.g. Polygamy
    • Boys and girls are taught about sex
    • Gender roles are clearly observed



    • Loss of parental love
    • Can lead to school dropouts
    • Children run away from home-become street children
    • Can lead to child abuse/labour
    • Many engage in prostitution/crime to produce for themselves
    • Lead to disease/death


    • Praying for them/preaching to them
    • Guiding and counseling them
    • Providing medical services for them
    • Providing basic needs for both the infected and family members
    • Educating them on ways of avoiding re-infection and teach them to live positively.
    • Initiating income generating activities to provide employment for them
    • Preaching against discrimination/advocating for legislation to support their existence
    • Building homes and shelters for them
    • Visiting them
    1. a)
    • It enhances conjugal rights in the family
    • It upholds dignity of the family members.  Children respect their father
    • Security is enhanced
    • Love is divided
    • It eases wrangles on property ownership/inheritance
    • It is a covenant protected by god/the state
    • Law and order prevails in the family/there is unity
    • It reduces chances of being infected with sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS
    • Providing for family needs is easier
    • It is easier to develop mutual confidence/trust among family members
    • It reduces delinquency among the children
    • The woman takes pride in the marriage


    • It’s a continuation of Jesus’ works of healing
    • The church has a duty to guide and counsel/promotes moral values in the society
    • To cater for infected/affected members of the community
    • To conserve god’s creation
    • It’s the duty of the church to help reduce human suffering
    • To promote economic development
    • To promote peace in the family/co-existence
    1. a) Christian teaching on marriage
    • Marriage should be between a man a woman
    • Marriage should be monogamous
    • Husband should love the wife
    • Husband and wife should be complementary/help each other
    • Marriage should be for companionship
    • Husband and wife should be faithful to each other
    • Conjugal right should be enjoyed in marriage/sex should only be for married couples
    • The wife should submit to the husband
    • Husband and wife should respect/cherish each other
    • Marriage is permanent/it is  a commitment/ no divorce
    • Marriage is God’s plan for human beings /it was instituted by god
    • The husband and wife should cleave to each other/become one/one flesh
    • Marriage provide for procreation/Multiplications



    • How Christians prepare for marriage
    • Pray to god for guidance in getting a partner
    • Identify the person to marry
    • Inform the parents/guardians about the person to marry
    • Propose to the would be spouse
    • Inform the church leaders about their marriage plans
    • Attend seminars/counseling sessions on marriage
    • Visit the parents/family of the would be spouse to discuss marriage arrangements/get consent
    • Make arrangements to give dowry
    • Arrange with the church on when the marriage can take place/fix a wedding date
    • Identify the marriage witnesses/best man/maid /best couple
    • Ensure there is availability of finance/resources



    • Reasons why some Christians break their marriage vows
    • Due to unfaithfulness/adultery
    • Lust/covetousness
    • Financial constraints/poverty
    • Pressure from in laws
    • Lack of faith in God
    • Influence from friends/peers
    • Lack of guidance and counseling
    • Lack of children/barrenness/having children of one sex
    • Hypocrisy/pretence
    • Effects of mass media/foreign culture
    • Poor role model
    • Denial of conjugal rights/dissatisfaction


    • Sex is sacred
    • Man and woman are created for companionship
    • A woman was created to complement man
    • The man and woman share the image of God/are equal
    • They become one in marriage
    • Sexual intercourse is life giving and procreation
    • Human beings have the ability to control sexual desires
    • All forms of irresponsible sexual behavior are condemned



    • Loneliness
    • Lack of mother/ father figure
    • Experience identity crisis/psychological problems
    • Social problem/humiliation/teasing
    • Lack of acceptance by community
    • Economic hardships
    • Problems in adopting to marriage life/when they finally marry
    • Lack of sexual satisfaction.




    • It interferes with God’s intention for marriage
    • It is an unnatural union/ abuse of the sacredness of sex
    • It goes against Christian ethics and African values/lack of morals
    • It is dishonorable to God/sin before god
    • God created a man and a woman for procreation/procreation is not practical between same sexes
    • It lowers the dignity of human beings
    • It is a form of sexual immorality/condemned in the bible
    • It can lead to spread of diseases.




    • Permissiveness in the society
    • Lack of self control
    • Influence form mass  media
    • Mental illness/stress
    • Erosion of African culture
    • False religion/devil worhipping/strange cult
    • To avenge for oneself
    • Breakdown of religious values
    • Irresponsible parenthood
    • Drugs and alcohol abuse
    • Indecent dressing
    • Leniency on the part of law enforcement agencies to the offenders
    • Idleness
    • Poverty/unemployment



    • The bible condemns it
    • It is against god’s command
    • Can create family conflicts
    • It can cause psychological problems e.g. anger, guilt, shame e.t.c
    • It is a disgrace to people involve
    • Children born out of incestuous relationship may have genetic problems
    • Christians have a duty to condemn evil in society


    • Unfaithfulness
    • Drug abuse/alcohol
    • One partner engaging in child abuse
    • Gossip/peer influence
    • In-law interference
    • Lack of sexual satisfaction
    • Poverty / differences in income
    • Difference in levels of education
    • Misuse of family resources by one partner
    • Differences in religious faith/doctrine.



    • Offering guidance/pre-marital counseling
    • Condemning pre-marital sex
    • Praying with/for them
    • Offering financial assistance for wedding preparation
    • Emphasizing on church wedding/discourage elopement
    • Church leaders setting an example for youth to emulate
    • Organizing seminars/retreats/drama to educate them
    • Teaching them about responsible parenthood/their roles as husband/wives
    • Teaching the Christian purpose of marriage


    • Some parents prefer educating boys to girls
    • To prepare them for leadership positions
    • To empower them socially/economically
    • To provide them with equal opportunities with boys
    • Girls and boys are equal in the eyes of god
    • In some communities, girls are married off at a very early age.


    • Procreation
    • Polygamy
    • Women were subordinate to their husbands
    • Divorce was rare
    • Relationships between in-laws were maintained well
    • Marriage promoted one’s status
    • Marriage was a covenant relationship and was not to be broken unless there were extreme problems



    • Lack of emotional satisfaction due to lack of love or sexual deprivation
    • Economic pressure/frustrations due to inability to meet basic needs
    • Job /work pressure i.e. frustration due to inability to meet work conditions
    • Differences on how to rear children
    • Number of children/sex of children /childlessness
    • Drug abuse
    • Unfaithfulness
    • Interference from in-laws


    • Poverty/ unemployment
    • Lack of role models
    • Socio-cultural factors e.g. circumcision, wife inheritance, cleansing rituals
    • Separation of spouses due to work, further studies/imprisonment
    • Availability of pornographic materials
    • Parental negligence/lack of guidance
    • Influence from friends/peers
    • Breakdown of moral values
    • Negative influence of Western culture



    • It may lead to death
    • May lead to pregnancy as it is not 1005 effective
    • May encourage unfaithfulness
    • May cause psychological effects
    • Can render one childless in future when one needs a child
    • High chances of contracting HIV/AIDS
    • Negative effects from hormonal contraceptives such as pills and injections e.g. cancer, bleeding
    • Concentrate on studies first, there is time for everything
    • Sex is sacred and only allowed in marriage.


    • Age
    • Family background
    • HIV status of a person/health status
    • Education background
    • Cultural/ethnic or racial background
    • Economic/social status


    • When mother’s life is in danger.
    • Pregnancy out of wedlock
    • Need to safeguard reputation of an individual the family
    • Unwanted pregnancies (as a result of rape)
    • Need to allow the girl to continue with her education
    • Extreme economic hardship/poverty
    • Failure of men to accept responsibilities
    • Neglect of professional ethics by medical personnel
    • Abuse and misuse of medical drugs
    • Permissiveness in the society



    • Use of power of prayer
    • Avoid staying alone e.g. in dark places with a person from the opposite sex
    • Good guidance and counseling from church leaders
    • Choose the right leisure activities
    • Read the bible for enlightenment and encouragement
    • Read literature on human sexuality to remove ignorance
    • Always be busy/avoid idleness
    • Obey god’s command on purity until marriage
    • Avoid arousing each other e.g. kissing
    • Always be decently dressed
    • Avoid watching pornography.





    • Both work and leisure were instilled by God during creation so they are both important to the life of human being
    • Work is exhausting so we need leisure to replenish lost energy
    • While work is a means of acquiring basics for life leisure guarantees celebrate that which has been earned through work
    • Both work and leisure are God’s command (Exodus 20: 8)
    • Doing work which is not our regular occupations can be a form of leisure
    • Work can lead one into tensional/frustrations leading to depression.  Well planned leisure activity may counteract the depression
    • Since god worked and took rest, human beings should also do the same
    • Leisure gives one an opportunity to perform work of charity
    • To a Christian, leisure does not mean to indulge in immoral activities
    • Leisure gives us an opportunity to praise God for the work accomplished
    • Shows disobedience to lawful institutional authority which is against biblical teachings
    • Disrupts peaceful working atmosphere
    • Leads to waste of time and resources
    • Could lead to destruction of property
    • May lead to loss of life which goes against Gods commandments
    • May lead to sacking/unemployment/suffering of the individual and their dependants
    • Leads to bitterness/hatred /frustrations/revenge




    • Open more technical institutes for masons, carpenters, electricians.
    • Provide guidance and counseling for positive attitude towards work
    • Enhance sense of responsibility in work
    • Giving them assistance in obtaining the equipment to staff small scale enterprises e.g. sewing machines
    • Help them in obtaining premises for their business


    • God ordained work
    • Jesus condemned idleness in his ministry in the parable of the talents
    • Idleness may lead to antisocial activities e.g. beggars
    • It dehumanizes individuals
    • Christians should emulate Jesus example of hard work
    • Idleness leads to one being a social parasite e.g. beggars
    • It is a rebellion against gods intention for human beings
    • It retards development of God given talents


    • The growth rate of Kenya’s economy is lower than the population growth
    • Inadequate land for those who want self employment in agriculture sector
    • Inadequate funds to start economic ventures
    • Adoption of lifestyles that do not promote development e.g. Drug addiction
    • A great part of Kenya has low potential
    • Wrong attitude instilled in the youth by the society
    • The youth think they should only do the white collar jobs
    • Poor job distribution where some people hold more than one job.
    • Policies that allow foreigners to take up jobs which would have been performed by Kenyans
    • Low investment ability due debt crisis and conditions set by donor countries
    • Application of redundant practices by both the government and the private sector i.e. Retrenchment
    • Liberalization of market which has led to influx of cheap goods thus leading to closure of some industries
    • Corruption/nepotism/tribalism.


    • Employ people as pastors
    • Has set up youth polytechnic to provide vocational training
    • Sponsors people through scholarship and bursaries to enable them acquire the necessary skills for employment
    • Church ran training colleges/universities where people are prepared for different careers
    • Encourage positive attitude towards all types of jobs
    • Enhance establishment of institutions which provide employment opportunities e.g. Schools, hospitals
    • Provides funds to start small scale income generating industries and projects.
    • Sustain self-help groups by helping them to make products and market them thus creating job opportunities.


    • Hours of work
    • Education/qualifications of an employee
    • Experience of an employee
    • Value of work
    • Needs of the employee/state of economy of the country
    • Dangers/risks of job to be done
    • Profits/returns of the work
    • The ability to pay
    • The amount of work to be done



    • Poor working relationship/lack of respect
    • Leads to exhaustion/fatigue
    • Can result in poor health/death
    • Can result in go-slow
    • There is mistrust/need to be supervised so as to work
    • Can lead to strikes/riots/violence
    • Leads to family conflicts/suspicion/divorce
    • Lack of time for spiritual nourishment/worship
    • Leads to negative attitude towards work


    1. a) Factors that contribute to unemployment in Kenya today
    1. High population whereby there are too many people for the available job opportunities.
    2. Lack of money to start individual businesses/unavailability of finances
    3. Some people lack skills which make them not to be absorbed in the job market
    4. Rural-urban migration-many people are congested in towns where job opportunities are limited
    5. Foreign aid-dependence on foreign aid causes the donors to give conditions of employment that is lean service
    6. Selfishness/greed- some Kenyans have more than two jobs, while others lack
    7. Education system-Many Kenyans prefer white collar jobs after school and because of stiff competition for available spaces, many remain unemployed
    8. Negative attitude towards work-some Kenyans lack the initiative to do or participate in economic activities just idle around
    9. Unequal distribution of wealth.  Some regions have more resources that create employment than other.
    10. New technological advance that has led to retrenchment
    11. Highly qualified in preference to less qualified
    12. Insecurity/increase in crime discourages local and international investors
    13. Bad governance/poor economic policies by government.


    1. b) Causes of conflicts between the employer and employees in Kenya today


    1. Lack of respect to the employer by employers/vice versa.
    2. Employees not given time for leisure/leave
    3. Poor working conditions/environment
    4. When the employees do not receive their wage/not paid on time
    5. When employers fail to consider the welfare of employees allowances
    6. When employees fail to accomplish tasks within the expected time/poor firm management
    7. When employees are allowed to join trade unions
    8. Unequal chances of promotion/discrimination by the employer/lack of promotion
    9. Poor/low remuneration.
    10. Sexual harassment by the employer
    11. Differences in religious affiliation between employer and employee
    12. Racial/tribal/ethnic differences may bring conflict
    13. Misuse/destruction of property by the employee
    14. Divulging the secrets of the employer/organization                       8×1 =8mks

    1. c) The role of a Christian during a strike
    1. Not to take part in the strike
    2. Encourage other people to find better means of solving the problem
    3. To inform the authority of any grievances if they are not aware/mediate.
    4. To pray for a solution to the problem/seek God’s guidance for a solution to the problem
    5. Should not take part in violent demonstration/encourage peaceful demonstration
    6. To report the matter to the nearest Police station      4×1=4 mks



      • Long working hours
      • Being underpaid or denied wages
      • Physical and sexual abuse
      • Being to make a profession art of begging
      • Being introduced into crime at an early age
      • Denial of health care and education
      • Denial of air their grievances
      • Verbal abuse
      • Denial to go to church and fulfill their spiritual needs



    • Practicing justice in the way they deal with workers
    • Advocating for the rights of children
    • Establishing legal clinics that can’t take up court cases of child abuse through labour and neglect
    • Teaching other about Jesus attitude towards children and calling them to be accountable for the way they treat children
    • Prosecuting those who contravene the law against child labour
    • Rescuing those who contravene the law against child labour
    • Rescuing children who are employed and neglected and providing them with shelter.  Clothing, health care and education
    • Helping poor parents to take care of their children by providing them with jobs
    • Educating parents that child labour, abuse and neglect is a crime and sin



    • Underpayment/delay with payment
    • Unhealthy working conditions
    • When employees are over worked
    • Refusing employees to take leave/observe national holidays
    • Lack of promotion/ salary increment/lack of motivation to employees
    • Some employers harass their employee sexually, abuses and quarrels
    • Some employees do not efficient/diligent in his work
    • If the employee is not royal/no respect for employer
    • Employees are not efficient/diligent in his work
    • If the employee is not royal/no respect for employer
    • Employer not allowing employees to have freedom of expression


    • Hatred amongst themselves
    • Physical injuries/death
    • Deduction of salaries
    • Interdiction of leaders at strike.
    • Loss of job
    • Family instability
    • Bad report and recommendation thus failure to get a job elsewhere
    • Family separation/divorce.



    • Desire for money
    • Poverty due to unemployment or single parenthood
    • Exploitation of children due to their ignorance
    • Dropping out of school due to reasons like pregnance
    • Lack of schooling
    • Lack of guidance and counseling for children
    • Lack of guidance and counseling for children
    • Lack of role models
    • Cultural values e.g. children drop out of school once they are circumcised
    • Lured by employers
    • Being homeless
    • Attraction to urban areas
    • Availability of cheap labour from children
    • Permissiveness in society


    • Creating enabling environment to borrow loans to finance businesses
    • Expanding Jua kali/informal sector.
    • Organizing trade fairs/shows to present goods produced locally
    • Seminars/workshops held to train self employed people
    • Creating trading/business zones in towns that charge lower taxes
    • Current 8.4.4 education is geared towards self employment
    • Funding by the government through the ministry of youth affairs.


    • Christians should work in order to fulfill god’s command
    • Those who do not work should not eat
    • Christians should work in order to provide for their basic needs
    • People should work to help the poor/needy
    • Christians should work so as to follow Christ’s example
    • They should work in order to pay tithes to promote God’s work
    • Workers should be paid their dues/should not be exploited
    • Laziness is condemned


    • Diligence/hard work
    • Honesty, integrity
    • Faithfulness/commitment
    • Responsibility, Loyalty, Tolerance
    • Cooperation


    • People should be paid for their work as agreed upon.
    • Workers should be paid wages commensurate to the amount and value of work done
    • Employers should not take advantage of poverty of the employees/hired labour
    • Human beings should not be enslaved to work
    • Employers who defraud their workers in wages are condemned
    • Oppression of the poor is condemned
    • Workers wages should never be withheld


    • They guide employees in their relationship with the clients
    • They help in maintaining the public image of the profession which must be good
    • They caution on influential person against pressure from certain individuals to reveal or disclose professional secretes or confidential information
    • They regulate the profession and upheld the dignity of individuals in the organization
    • They help members of society/clients to develop confidence
    • They outline the behavior/competence expected of a worker of a particular profession
    • For good relations between him/her colleagues.






    • It leads to conflicts/quarrels within the family
    • Misuse of family resources
    • May lead to addiction
    • Leads to irresponsible sexual behaviors e.g. prostitution. Adultery, fornication
    • Could lead to loss of income
    • May lead to irresponsibility which leads to divorce/separation/crimes etc
    • Leads to accidents such as motor accidents



    • Organize/attend religious seminars
    • Visit/pray for the sick/prisoners
    • Participate in church choir/concerts
    • Offer services to the aged
    • Read religious literature e.g. bible
    • Keep the church and its environment clean
    • Have fellowship with other Christians
    • Initiate self-help projects to assist the needy
    • Provide guidance and counseling to the community
    • Preach the work of God
    • Visit relatives and friends
    • Be with family members
    • Listen to Christian preaching/songs on radio.
    • Watch Christian films/video
    • Drains family resources
    • Flights in families may occur
    • Leads to disease
    • Leads to family break ups/separation/divorce
    • It reduces ones capacity to be productive in the family
    • Results in making wrong decisions/judgment
    • Leads to denial of conjugal rights
    • Leads to loss of religious values
    • Leads to poor role model for children
    • Leads to crime/imprisonment


    • Practicing self control
    • Praying against being tempted
    • Seeking guidance and counseling
    • Avoiding the company of those who misuse drugs
    • Reading literature on the correct use of drugs
    • Participating in activities that promote proper use of drugs/healthy activities.


    1. a)
    • Gives one time to visit the sick/needy
    • For dedicating oneself to God/worship God
    • Provide an opportunity to fellowship with others
    • It allows one to develop the different talents given by God
    • It gives one an opportunity to meet new friends/family
    • One is able to read the word of God.
    • Provides an opportunity for one to preach/evangelize
    • Provides an opportunity to guide and counsel others and be guided
    • Provides one with opportunity to take care of the environment


    • Too much money/wealth/availability of drugs /contraceptives
    • Inadequate facilities
    • Lack of proper guidance/education on how to use leisure
    • Poverty
    • Inability to make right decisions
    • Bad company peer pressure
    • Watching /reading pornographic materials/negative media
    • Misunderstanding in families/frustrations
    • Inability to balance between different activities
    • Permissiveness
    • Lack of role models
    • Idleness/boredom/unemployment
    • Poor role models
    • Stress/depression/rebellion
    • Peer pressure/curiosity
    • Influence of mass media
    • Availability of drugs/wealth
    • Irresponsible parenthood
    • Lack of guidance and counseling
    • Corruption/greed.
    • Poverty
    • Moral decay/permissiveness in the society
    • Lack of knowledge/ignorance on use of drugs
    • Idleness
    • Urbanization/west culture


    • Making guidance and counseling services available to the youth
    • Sensitizing them on the dangers of drug abuse/addiction
    • Enhancing laws against drug abuse
    • By enforcing laws dealing with drug abuse so that drug peddlers are prosecuted in a court of la
    • Exposing them to religions activities/positive leisure activities
    • Set good examples by elders through avoiding drug abuse
    • Encouraging them in productive activities to avoid idleness
    • Show love to drug addicts


    • It enables one to worship God
    • It allows one tem to socialize with relatives and friends
    • Allows time to relax
    • Allows time to create new energies
    • Helps one to read the bible for spiritual growth
    • Allows him to pray for others and for himself
    • Helps one to visit the sick, prisoners, widows orphans
    • Allows time to improve his knowledge
    • Allows time to increase one supplement e.g baking, running.
    • Failure to collect and balance passive and active leisure
    • Misunderstanding in the family
    • Poor planning may lead to overindulging
    • Poverty/too much wealth
    • Feeling of insecurity
    • Social oppression/Injustice may interfere with people’s freedom to involve in leisure
    • Influence of mass media.






    1. a)
    • Bride price was given as a token of appreciation to the girls parents
    • Through barter trade
    • Through inheritance of property from parents/guardians/relatives
    • Gifts were given in appreciation of talents/good conduct/loyalty
    • Through warfare/raids
    • Through marrying many wives/getting many children who provided labour force
    • Through of skills like tool making/weaving/pottery/welding
    • Those with talents like medicine men/diviners/rainmakers sold their services
    • Those who worked hard e.g. through clearing forests/breaking of virgin land enriched themselves.


    • There is use of corruption/bribery/ giving false witness
    • The people are discriminated against because of poverty
    • There is power struggle to acquire wealth/riches and to protect is
    • Wages labour has undermined the family unit
    • People sell family land and end up living in squatters
    • There is rise of individualism/unwillingness to share
    • Dependence on foreign and aid has underlined the virtue of hard work to earn a living
    • Development of a class system in Africa
    • There is rural urban migration leading to weakness in family ujnit
    • Bride price/marriage has been commercialized thus undermining love
    • Struggle to acquire wealth has undermined commitment to God.


    • Through financing the spread of gospel.
    • Contribution towards the construction of hospitals/schools/churches/homes for the old and rehabilitation centre
    • Provision of formal education
    • Provision of professional training
    • Provision of social services/amenities to the needy
    • Giving tithes/offerings
    • Paying taxes to the government
    • Providing for the family needs.
    1. a) How unfair distribution of wealth can lead to social disorder in Kenya today
    • It causes anger/hatred
    • Some people can steal/grap in order to be at peace with those who have
    • It widens the gap between the rich and the poor
    • Regional/ethnic clashes can occur because of inequitable distribution of land
    • It can create disconnect/apathy among the people
    • It forms a basis for oppression of the poor by the rich/those who have
    • It makes those who have look down upon those who don’t have
    • It can lead to violence/murder
    • It can lead to sexual exploitation/immorality
    • It leads to strikes/demonstrations/industrial action
    • It can lead to a strained relationship between the government and the people


    • It is a blessing from God
    • Wealth comes with responsibilities
    • Wealth can create a sense of false independence
    • It should be acquired in just and honest way
    • Wrong attitude to wealth lead to idolatry
    • One should seek spiritual wealth which is permanent and more fulfilling
    • It is wrong to discriminate other on basis of material possessions
    • Christians should share whatever wealth they have
    • Wealth gives people independence so that they do not beg
    • Wealth may bring suffering insecurity
    • God is the owner of wealth and people should realize that they are only stewards
    • The wealth should not oppress the poor


    • Riches acquired through just and fair means are not condemned
    • Even if wealth is acquired through just mean, it should not be idolized
    • Falling to use wealth to glorify God
    • God is the source of all riches
    • Wealth is acquired through obedience to Gods laws
    • People ought to take care of their wealth/not misuse
    • Wealth should be equally distributed and not contracted in the hands of a few
    • Wealth should be used to develop the nation’s infrastructure


    • Indulge in alcohol and drugs
    • Engaging in immoral practices e.g. prostitution
    • Gambling which might lead to loss of wealth
    • Being luxurious/extravagant
    • Unfair class competition among the wealthy
    • Using wealthy to promote crime
    • Engaging in risky/dangerous sports or projects e.g. motor racing, wrestling
    • Using wealth to engage young people into immoral practices e.g. sex tourism


    • One may indulge in alcohol drug abuse at the expense of family needs.
    • Engage in immorality/extra-marital sexual relations/prostitution
    • Leads to misunderstanding on how to use wealth/invest
    • One uses wealth to engage in gambling
    • Spoils children/encourage in gabling
    • Spoils children/encourages laziness
    • Arrogance/pride/showing off
    • One becomes obsessed with wealth and fails to care for the family/one has to time for the family
    • Inheritance squabbles in case of death
    • One fails to meet the basic needs of the family


    • Offering fee education
    • Provision of C.D.F.
    • Allocation of bursary to the needy
    • Provision of low cost health services
    • Creating and enabling environment for employment in formal and informal sectors (easy access to loans)
    • Providing youth fund through the ministry of youth affairs


    • Geographical factors e.g. adverse climatic conditions
    • Historical/colonialism and social factors e.g. poor family background
    • Political instability which may lead to civil wars
    • Poor governance
    • Regional imbalance of natural resources
    • Low levels of technology
    • Unemployment
    • Laziness
    • Overdependence on foreign aid
    • Abuse of alcohol and other drugs
    • Lack of formal education hence no employment






    • Obeying the laws and observing the constitution of a nation
    • Working towards the welfare of a country
    • Performing the duties expected of them
    • Preaching against sin/evil e.g. tribalism, exploitation
    • Exercising their civil rights e.g. right to vote during elections
    • Pray for the government and leaders, the welfare of the nation
    • Preaching peace, love and reconciliation
    • Being peace, love and reconciliation
    • Being involved in charitable work to supplement government efforts e.g. helping the sick, poor, old and those with special needs
    • Working towards the establishment of good social relationship.
    • Teaching  people to obey the laws of god
    • Paying taxes to the state.
    • Christians serve in the government as civil servants
    • Report law breakers to the authorities
    • Celebrating national days
    • Avoiding activities that undermine the government or lead to breakdown of law and order e.g. illegal strikes


    • By sharing their resources with those who do not have
    • Helping the poor and the orphans
    • Visiting the six, prisoners, bereaved, the oppressed and the depressed
    • Fulfilling their domestic obligation
    • Fulfilling ecclesiastical obligations and responsibilities
    • Praying for peace and justice
    • Pointing out and correcting evil in the society
    • Calling for justice and rule of law
    • Caring for the environment
    • In order to maintain peace/harmony
    • To protect individual lives/property
    • So as to imitate Jesus Christ
    • To Promote justice in society
    • To be role models/live exemplary lives
    • Avoid punishment
    • Its Christian duty to respect the authority.


    • By praying for free and fair elections
    • Being employed at various levels in and out of polling stations
    • Being committed in playing different roles
    • Being honest/not fearing intimidation/persecution
    • Casting ones vote.
    • Educating the masses on their civil rights/obligations
    • Financing/assisting the government  in facilitating smooth and fair elections
    • Avoiding situations of confrontation with the government of the day.


    • Praying for the corrupt people to change
    • Being a role model/avoiding taking part in corrupt activities
    • Preaching to the people on the ills of corrupt
    • Report incidences of corruption to the relevant authority
    • Encourage people to adhere to the stipulated laws and regulations
    • Publish books/magazines on negative effects of corruption
    • Organize seminars/conference/workshops for people to discuss solution to end corruption
    • Campaigning for better salaries to workers
    • Electing honest leaders
    • Establish the causes of corruption.


    • Church members obey the laws of a country.
    • Educating people on civil rights
    • Participating in constitutional reforms
    • Condemning evil practices in the society
    • Teaching church members responsible parenthood
    • Discipline deviant members of the church
    • Rehabilitating law breakers
    • Providing material assistance to the needy
    • Praying for peace and love to prevail
    • Providing guidance and counseling services
    • Paying taxes to support activities of the state
    • Initiating development project
    • Providing job opportunities


    • Praying for the nation/leaders
    • Observing national days
    • Obeying the laws of a country
    • Paying taxes
    • Working together on state matters
    • Participating in elections
    • Alleviating poverty
    • Contributing to harambees
    • Respecting the flag
    • Promoting peace


    • The church has a moral responsibility to correct evil in society
    • It’s a ways of emulating Jesus Christ
    • It is against God’s teaching/laws
    • To ensure fair distribution of human/natural resources
    • In order to uplift human dignity/human rights
    • So as to create peace/harmony /unity in society
    • To promote national development
    • To guard against God’s judgment upon the nation.
    • It is their constitutional right
    • In order to own their elected leaders/identify with them
    • So as to remove oppressive leaders/government
    • In order to effect a peaceful change
    • It is demonstration of obedience to earthly authorities
    • The elected leaders are their direct representatives in parliament
    • To demonstrate patriotism
    • It’s a duty to Christians
    • To ensure quality leadership is achieved
    • It is a sense of unity in national building
    • It is an opportunity to infuse Christians principles in the leadership of the nation
    • It is a sign of accountability
    • Helps in development of the whole person
    • It is a service of humanity.
    1. a)
    • Right to life
    • Right to have basic needs- food, shelter & clothing
    • Right to receive education
    • Right to marry/raise up a family/ belong to a family
    • Right to have freedom of association/assembly
    • Right to freedom of speech/receive information/expression.
    • Right to own property
    • Freedom of worship
    • Right to liberty/movement
    • Right to work/earn a living
    • Right to medical care/health
    • Right to security/protection by the law
    • Freedom of conscience/right to vote


    • To emulate Jesus who paid taxes to the roman authorities
    • To heed Jesus instruction to respect the civil authorities
    • Christians pay taxes in order to receive service from the government
    • To provide essential services
    • Christians pay taxes as a sign of patriotism
    • Christians pay taxes as a way of sharing their wealth with others
    • It is their duty to pay taxes to the government
    • To enable the government to meet its financial obligation



    • Providing guidance and counseling
    • Preaching about love for one another in the society
    • Rehabilitating law breakers
    • Providing jobs/offering training opportunities to the people Giving loans to people to start businesses
    • Providing recreational facilities for the youth
    • Reporting criminals to the law enforcement authorities
    • Disciplining deviant members of the church
    • Participating in government programmes established to fight crime
    • Obeying the laws of the country/being role models
    • Praying for peace/harmony
    • Teaching responsible parenthood
    • Providing basic needs for the needy
    • Condemning evil practices in the society/teaching against crime


    1. a)
    • Ways through which Christians promote justice in Kenya today
    • Preaching to/teaching people to have fair dealings with one another
    • Living exemplary lives/role models
    • Encouraging the government/leaders to uphold the rule of law
    • Carrying out civic education for the citizens to know their rights and duties
    • Condemning acts of unfairness in society
    • Helping in the rehabilitation of the law breakers/offering guidance and counseling services
    • Praying for people to practice justice
    • Participating in Law/constitutional making process
    • Assisting the needy to get jobs/offering them jobs
    • Asking those who have wrongly acquired wealth to return it pay back
    • Using mass media to promote justice


    1. b) Reasons why Christians in Kenya are against the death sentence
    • The law of god forbids killing
    • Death sentence is irreversible in case an innocent person is killed
    • Life is sacred/belongs to God
    • Killing does not reform the offender
    • The offender’s right as a human being is undermined as he/she is used as a means to deter others
    • It is against God’s principle of forgiveness
    • It undermines Christian virtue of love
    • The victim’s dependants/family are denied a chance to be with their loved one
    • It can be misused by those in power to instill fear/discourage opposing views/eliminate others


    1. a) Reasons why it is important to have laws in a country
    • Laws safeguard people’s rights/citizens’ rights
    • People’s  property is protected under the law
    • They protect the consumer from exploitation
    • It allows/provides for economic development/growth
    • Individuals are able to enjoy the freedom of worship
    • The law acts as a check/measure of those in authority
    • The law outlines how foreigners should be handled
    • They control taxation/collection of revenue
    • It enables the government to protect its citizens against oppression
    • The law determines the type of punitive measures for a crime done/prevent crime
    • It ensures political stability in a country/nation.  Order/peace/love/unity
    • It outlines the relationships between different nations/countries

    6×1= 6mks)

    1. b) Problems related to maintenance of law and order in Kenya today
    • Some legislators/parliamentarians do not observe law thus serving as wrong role models.
    • There is a lot of unfairness/injustice when settling cases because of tribalism/nepotism/religious affiliation/gender.
    • Intimidation/people in high offices use their power to influence certain decisions regarding law breaking.
    • Economic inability makes the poor to resort to lawless to meet their need/unequal distribution of resources
    • Availability of dangerous weapons/guns in the wrong hand leads to insecurity/terrorism,.
    • There are a few resources to cater for the ever growing population, thus leading to overcrowding/competition that overwhelms the established machinery
    • People lack interest/do not care about other, hence don’t report cases of lawlessness/permissiveness in the society/drug abuse
    • Bribery/corruption has destroyed the credibility of the government officials
    • People have lost respect/trust for government/machinery /have resigned to a life of hopelessness/fear of victimization
    • Interference from the civil society/human rights groups/activists who oppose government initiatives in maintenance of law and order
    • Inadequate modern technology hampers maintenance of the law
    • Inadequate skilled personnel to handle issues to do with law breaking
    • People are not conversant with the laws of the country
    • Greed for power/wealth.  Some people can go to any extent to acquire wealth even if it means breaking the law                                 8×1=8mks

    1. c) Ways in which Christians in Kenya help those who have been released from prison.

    Praying for them

    Visiting them so that they can feel wanted in society/invite them to their homes

    Preaching the good news of salvation to them

    Showing them care/concern

    Welcoming them into the church

    Providing them with basic/financial needs(food/shelter/clothing/medication)

    Offering guidance and counseling to help them to reform

    Involving them in community/church activities

    By helping them to become self reliant by giving them jobs/survival skills.

    Listening to them/help them to solve their problems

    Counseling their families to accept/forgive them.                        6×1=6mks



    Taking part in general elections

    Influencing the removal of a bad and corrupt government by urging citizens to vote it out

    Seeking positions in government

    Condemning evils without fear

    Promoting the maintenance of law and order

    Promoting patriotism

    Respecting and obeying the authority since they are ordained by God

    Taking part in government functions

    Praying for the leaders and nation as a whole

    Conducting civil education, to enlighten the people on their rights and duties.

    Standing for the truth at time

    Supporting the government in all its endeavors to alleviate suffering

    Praying the role of arbitrators when there are disputes when there are disputes

    Promoting peace where there are clashes or disturbances of any kind


    • Killing is a sin
    • It undermines human dignity
    • God is the only one who should take away life
    • It is a violation of right to life
    • It causes psychological torture to the family of the victim
    • The Bible teaches that we should forgive countless times
    • God is the overall judge
    • Any form of punishment should be for rehabilitation yet capital punishment defeats this cause
    • Sometimes an innocent person may be killed which is irrepressible
    • Damages the image of god in the criminal
    • It denies the criminal an opportunity to repent


    Both the church and the state are involved in areas experiencing famine/both sponsors agricultural/extension services

    Both provide medicine as both own hospitals in the country

    Both provide employment/government has many people in the civil service while the church has employed many people as church minister

    Both come together in solving problems like floods, fire which destroy slums in the cities

    Both participate in church and state functions

    Both are involved in training of personnel in various filds like in teaching

    Both are involved in worship/many civil servants attend church worship all over that state has given freedom of worship to all its citizens.


    • Showing Godly love to all like Jesus
    • Sensitizing people to appreciate and respect different ethnic group
    • Supporting educational and cultural programmes in a bid to promoting national unity
    • Discouraging tribalism through inter-ethnic marriages
    • Perpetrators of tribalism should be charged and punished according to the law
    • Creation of more national schools in the country so as to admit more students from every part of the country
    • Use a common language in the country as a unifying factor
    • Encouraging domestic tourism through educating people on the benefits of visiting different parts of the country



    • Duty to pay taxes
    • To show patriotism and respect for the flag
    • One is expected to learn and sing the national anthem during national celebrations
    • Duty to report the environment
    • Responsibility to work for the nation and for themselves
    • Duty to protect life




    • Obey the authorities
    • Observe all the laws
    • Pay taxes
    • Report errant members of society of law enforcement agents/authority
    • Take part in decision making of the nation like voting for the right representatives in parliament
    • Working hard
    • Not bringing people or receiving bribes
    • Practice love and charity


    • Poverty-People resort to unlawful means of survival such as robbery, selling illicit brews and child trafficking
    • Poor relationship between the laws enforces and the public undermines the effort to fight crime
    • Rural urban migration-urbanization has led to the breakdown of African kinship system which helps in enforcing law and order t community level
    • Irresponsible parents have abdicated the duty of bringing up their children to teachers and house helps.  This means that the children may not embrace the necessary virtues in life
    • Green for money-they are not contented with that they have hence they are involved in criminal activities
    • Drug abuse has caused people to lose the sense of judgment and engage in criminal activities
    • Un-employment-both formal and informal employment
    • Availability of arms
    • Leniency of the law in matter of crime







    • Care for conserve the environment e.g. planting trees, grass or flowers
    • Avoiding pollution of water, air and land by properly disposing waste
    • Caring for the less fortunate embers of the society for example helping the needy
    • Condemning abortion
    • Discouraging capital punishment
    • Practicing responsible parenthood and discouraging child abuse
    • Sharing natural resources with the less fortunate
    • Discouraging capital punishment
    • Providing guidance and counseling on the value of life.


    • It destroys gods creation
    • It leads to desertification/destruction of catchments areas
    • Denies the animals of the natural habitat
    • It is motivated by hman greed/selfishness
    • It is against God’s command/human beings should take care of the environment
    • Results in environment pollution
    • Affects the source of traditional medicine
    • It destroys natural beauty
    • Leads to soil erosion degradation


    1. It is against the teaching of god’s natural growth
    • It interferes with procreation
    • It may produce a race which is undesirable
    • It makes a man complete with god
    • It hinders god’s plan like marriage
    • It undermines human dignity as human beings are used as guinea pigs
    • It is done for selfish and individualistic gains and leads to misuse of resources
    • It eliminates the weak organisms and interferes with the balance of nature.
    • It can lead to production of artificial human being who operates like machine without feelings.
    • It can introduce cancer causing genes into a common infectious organism /can lead to transmission of HIV/AIDS.



    • People are able to carry out abortions which lead to death of unborn/risk the mothers life/mercy killing/euthanasia.
    • Cloning/test tube babies undermine human sexuality
    • Machines fertilizers pollute the environment thus endangering the lives of human being.
    • Vasectomy tube litigation undermines God’s purpose for procreation.
    • Weapons of mass destruction lead to loss of life.
    • Human beings have been rendered jobless due to modern science and technology.
    • Accidents caused by machines and vehicles leads to loss of lives.
    • Deforestation leads to depletion of trees/soil erosion/lower food production/hunger.
    • Organ transplant/plastic surgery undermines God’s creation.
    • Drug abuse.



    • Electronic media like ratio, TV are used to teach good news.
    • Public address system is used to preach to a large congregation
    • Modern means of communication e.g. automobiles ease movement of evangelists.
    • Recoded cassettes are used to preach through music/recorded sermons
    • Modern musical instrument in music e.g. keyboards electronic guitars, are used as accompaniment in music.
    • Telephone/postal services are used in running essential services of church
    • Typewriter/computers/printing machines have enabled evangelists to put their writing in texts so that they can reach out to  more people
    • Technology in architecture/building technology has enabled churches to put up sanctuaries from where they preach.
    • In medicine, churches have used modern technology to equip hospitals to treat the sick to carry out healing ministry.
    • Scientific research has enabled evangelist to come up with effective methods in spreading the gospel.


    • Air pollution may cause respiratory problems for human beings
    • Industrial affluent causes a major threat to humankind, aquatic life and plants
    • Industrial pollution causes acid rain
    • Noise pollution can causes stress and high blood pressure and deafness in humans.
    • Garbage heaps especially in urban areas are hiding places for thieves so increase in crime rates.
    • Air pollution cause adverse weather and domestic changes due to the chemicals emitted in the air
    • The depletion of the zone layer may cause skin cancer, eye damage and reduction of immunity making people prone to many infections because of the ultra violet rays.
    • Water pollution which leads to people taking unclean water causes disease e.g. dysentery. Cholera and diarrhea which are major killers especially infants
    • Dumping in rivers destroys the ecosystem


    • Understand that the environment was created and sanctified by God hence should be kept holy


    • Teach others the importance of preserving the environment
    • Make contributions towards the conservation of the environment  e.g. planting of trees, building of gabions
    • Participate in conservation projects e.g. digging terraces, cleaning the environment
    • Set an example in conservation of the environment e.g. keeping the environment clean
    • Observation of personal hygiene
    • Christian should care for the Flores and fauna (plants and animals)
    • Avoid buying and selling of products made from materials obtained through destruction of the environments e.g. tropies from game products and charcoal.
    • Not to participate in activities leading to destruction of the environment


    • Destruction of forests after cutting down trees for timber and paper industry
    • It results to ecological imbalances when eliminating harmful insects using  D.D.T
    • Careless disposal of waste from industries e.g. plastic bags, container making the environment unpleasant
    • Trough industries harmful materials are emitted which result to air, watewr and land pollution
    • Destruction of trees/vegetation by acid rain released to the atmosphere from burning fuels
    • Water pollution through agricultural activities has let to contamination of fish/reducing the sources of food for man
    • Polluted water is dangerous through recreational facilities
    • Ozone layer has been destroyed through harmful chemicals from industries resulting to increased temperatures on the earth surface/global warming
    • Destroying has led to desertification thus turning arable lands to desert.


    Scientific inventions have led to pollution and this has affected human dignity.

    It has been used to interfere with the original human biological function as intended by God e.g. use of contraceptives and drugs

    It has led to unemployment e.g. use of computers replacing human labour

    Scientific theory of creation challenges Christian view that human beings were created by God.

    It has created social classes i.e. poor and the rich

    It has led to immorality through the internet pornographic magazines and T.V. programmes

    Has been used to destroy God’s creation e.g. use of atomic bombs

    It has endangered people’s lives e.g. through car accidents, plane crashes

    People use scientific and technological advances to humiliate other

    Has been used to demean God’s creative ability e.g. cloning, sex change





    • Science should not replace man’s job i.e. use of computer
    • It should not be used to destroy human life
    • It should not destroy values about dignity of man and sanctify of life e.g. cloning
    • It should not be used to destroy the environment
    • It should help man to appreciate the splendour of God/the beauty of God’s creation
    • It should be made to serve the needs of men for material and spiritual happiness
    • It should help man in solving problems
    • It should be used to glorify God the creator, rather than for selfish ends.


    Has helped to improve food production

    Helped a high standard of living e.g. materials for building e.g. Mabati, clothing cultural development and sanitation.

    Has an improved global human relation

    Has helped to enhance international trade

    Has enabled man to subdue to the environment

    Has enabled man to understand and control resources

    Has promoted research and eventually discovery of new things

    Has promoted research and eventually discovery of new things

    He brought in used of machines to help workers produce more with less effort

    Has helped to improve transport and communication hence creating a global village


    It increases the rate of growth and maturity of livestock beneficial to human beings in livestock products

    It has aided research in manufacture of human growth  a hormones

    It increase disease resistance in crops

    To originate generic finger printing for forensic work

    To produce genetically engineered bacterial

    Helps to identify/determine biological parents of a child

    Increase in plant and animals yields for the benefit of an ever increasing human population



    Cultivation of steep slopes/water catchment areas

    Charcoal burning

    Population from industrial e.g. smoke and refuse

    Use of explosives, atomic bombs


    Mining /quarrying/dereliction

    Dumping of under-gradable waste on the ground and in water








    TIME:  2 ½ HOURS


    1. a) Identify the five major divisions of the New Testament in their order.


    1. b)  Outline the teachings on the relationship between human beings and the

    environment from the Genesis stories of creation.


    1. a) Explain the effects of the translation of the Bible into African languages in

    Kenya.                                                                                     (5mks)

    1. b) Explain the Israelites New understanding of God from the Exodus to the

    renewal of the covenant.

    1. c) What is the importance of the renewal of the covenant to Christians today?
    2. a) Outline the features of the Canaanite religion.                       (9mks)
    3. b) Explain how King Solomon turned away from the covenant way of life


    1. c) Explain the challenges faced by Prophet Elijah in Israel.     (5mks)
    2. a) List the leadership qualities found in the person of Nehemiah which

    Leaders today can emulate                                                     (7mks)

    1. b) Relate Nehemiah’s exemplary life to St. Luke’s gospel and to Christians

    today.                                                                                                  (8mks)

    1. c) Outline occasions when prayers were offered in traditional African

    societies                                                                                              (8mks)

    5          a)         Explain various factors which guarded an individual against Africans for

    Christianity.                                                                               (7 marks)

    1. b) Identify ways in which Traditional African religion prepared the Africans

    for Christianity.                                                                                   (7mks)



    1. c) Outline forms of discrimination in our society today.                       (5mks)

    6          a)         Describe how wealth was acquired in traditional African communities

    1. b) Identify and explain African moral values that contributed to harmonious

    living in the society.                                                                (8mks)

    1. c) Explain the factors that affect the traditional African heritage today



    MODEL 2 PAPER Q 3/3/1


    1. a) What was the role of Moses in the history of the Israelites?  (10mks)
    2. b) Identify the roles of the African traditional council of elders              (5mks)
    3. c) Explain the factors that affect the traditional African heritage today


    1. a) From  genesis chapters 3-11 explain the effects for Adam and Eve’s

    rebellion against God.                                                            (10mks)

    1. b) What were the causes of evil according to African traditional

    communities?                                                                          (5mks)

    1. c) What are the similarities between the biblical concept of sin and the

    Traditional African view of evil?                                           (5mks)

    3          a)         Give reasons why Elijah faced danger and hostility in Israel (10mks)

    1. b) State five evils committed by King Ahab according to Prophet Elijah.


    1. c) show how God worked through Elijah to reveal himself.      (5mks)
    2. a) Explain why Yahweh’s prophets condemned the way of worship in Israel.


    1. b) Explain Jeremiahs’ symbolic actions in his prophesy of judgment (5mks)
    2. c) Explain the role of the church in religious reforms.               (5mks)
    3. a) describe the call of Amos                                                       (6mks)
    4. b) Identify the social injustices condemned by prophet Amos.  (7mks)
    5. c) State and explain the factors that hinder the Christians from helping the

    needy.                                                                                     (7mks)

    1. a) Identify the roles of sponsors in traditional African initiation ceremonies.


    1. b) Explain ways in which marriage contributed to social relationships in the

    traditional African society.                                                     (7mks)


    1. c) Why was prostitution rare in the traditional African society?   (6mks)





    Answer any five questions

    1          a)         Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah


    1. b) Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?                    (7mks)
    2. c) Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the

    contemporary world.                                                              (6mks)

    1. a) What were the signs of eschatology according to St. Luke?  (7mks)
    2. b) Give evidence that shows that Jesus rose from the dead.      (7mks)
    3. c) What lessons do Christians learn about nature of Jesus from the testimony

    of the repentant thief?                                                             (6mks)

    1. a) What are the illustrations of the unity of believers in the New Testament?
    2. b) Explain the New Testament teachings on the unity of believers.       (8mks)
    3. c) Give the reasons that have caused churches to split in Kenya


    1. a) Identify situations when critical thinking can be used.                      (7mks)
    2. b) Identify the Christian values that can enhance the creation of a just society.                                                                                     (7mks)


    1. c) What things make a student confident with oneself?                         (6mks)
    2. a) what advantages does a Christian family have when members practice the

    Commandment “Do not commit adultery”                                        (7mks)

    1. b) Mention the problems that are related to family life today.               (7mks)
    2. c) Give reasons why HIV/AIDS campaign is ineffective in Kenya?     (6mks)
    3. a) what is importance of professional codes of ethics?                         (8 mks)
    4. b) Outline ways in which Christians use leisure to glorify God.           (6mks)
    5. c) What are the effects of alcoholism and drug abuse?                          (6mks)










    1          a)         Explain the role of John the Baptist as a link between the Old Testament

    and the new Testament.                                                          (10mks)

    1. b) Explain why Jesus was baptized by John.                              (5mks)
    2. c) What is the importance of baptism to Christian churches today? (5mks)
    3. a) Describe the call of the first disciples of Jesus according to Luke 5:1-11.
    4. b) What lesson can Christians learn from the call of the first disciples?


    1. c) In what ways does the church prepare people to do the work of God?

    (5 mks)

    1. a) Briefly describe the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.  (5mks)
    2. b) What does the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about his

    Kingdom?                                                                                  (5mks)

    1. c) What lessons can Christians learn from the triumphant entry into

    Jerusalem?                                                                               (10mks)

    1. a) Define leisure and explain its importance in the life of a person. (12 mks)
    2. b) Identify and explain factors that lead people to misuse leisure in modern

    society.                                                                                        (8 mks)

    1. a) Explain ways in which the employers should show respect for the

    human dignity of employees.                                                  (8mks)

    1. b) What are the responsibilities of employed to employers?      (7 mks)
    2. c) What problems do the self-employed people in Kenya  today face? (5mks)
    3. a) explain how poverty is manifested in the society today?                   (7mks)
    4. b) According to traditional African communities explain the factors that

    made people poor                                                                                (5mks)

    1. c) What steps can Christians today take to lessen the gap between the rich and the poor?                                                                                     (8mks)







    1. a)
    • Gospels
    • Historical book
    • Pauline letters
    • General Epistles
    • Historical book                                   (any 5×1)= mks)


    • Both had a common origin.  They were created by God.
    • Human beings and the environment have a common destiny
    • All creation is good and man should treat it with respect and care
    • Human beings are expected to take care of the environment
    • Creation is anthropocentric. Other thins were created for man’s sake
    • Human beings should enjoy God’s creation
    • Man is superior to the rest of the creation
    • Man is superior to the rest of the creation
    • God was pleased with all that he had created.                        (Any 7×1=7 mks)


    • It led to the establishment of more schools to cater for the growing need for formal education
    • Christianity became a more active religion
    • It led to establishment of independent churches
    • Christianity became a more active religion
    • It led to mass evangelization
    • It led to establishment of African independent churches and schools
    • It led to establishment of African independent churches and schools
    • It led to the establishment of Bible societies such as the Bible society of Kenya
    • The Africans were able to understand themselves and their own human dignity before God.
    • It stimulated a demand for more Bibles leading to the establishment of local printing presses


    1. a) Conditions given by god to the Israelites during the renewal of the Sinai


    • To obey god
    • Not to make any treaties with other tribes
    • To destroy the altars of the gods of other tribes and places of idol worship
    • Not to make or worship any other gods
    • To keep the three main festivals-the feast of the three main festivals- the feast of
    • unleavened bread, the feast of weeks and the feast of ingathering
    • To celebrate the Sabbath and keep it Holy.
    • Not to intermarry with foreigners
    • To dedicate the male first born to God
    • To give the first fruits of their fields and flocks to God
    • To give a tenth of their produce to God.


    1. b) The Israelites new understanding of god from the Exodus to the renewal of the


    • God is slow to anger
    • He is compassionate and gracious
    • He leaves no sin unpunished
    • He is jealous god who does not tolerate the worship of other gods
    • He forgives those who repent
    • He is all powerful
    • He is the controller of natural forces
    • He requires obedience and a personal relationship with his people
    • He is a healer
    • He is a God of victory
    • He is a faithful god who keeps his promises
    • God reveals himself through nature.
    1. c) Importance of the renewal of the covenant to Christians today

    Christians are blessed through God’s plan whose realization is attributed to the covenant

    • Christians continue to enter into covenants with god where faith and obedience are most important
    • The Mosaic Law (Decalogue) forms the basis of Christian laws principles and values
    • Christian worship draws a lot from the activities in the Sinai covenant
    • Christian sermons refer a lot to the covenant
    • Christian preachers and catechists use the Ten commandments as essential for believers

    3          a) features of the Canaanite religion

    • It was a nature religion
    • It was polytheistic. It had many gods and goddesses.
    • Rituals were performed to ensure continued fertility and the well-being of the community.
    • The re was a chief god from whom all other gods sought support
    • Both human and animal sacrifices were offered to the gods and goddesses
    • Temple and shrines were dedicated to the gods and goddesses
    • There were prophets, prophetesses and priests dedicated to the service of the gods and goddesses
    • The Canaanite made images used symbols to represent their gods and goddesses.

    1. b) How King Solomon turned away from the covenant way of life


    • He married foreign wives
    • He loved himself more than god by building his palace for 13 years and the temple for only seven years.
    • He disobeyed God’s command by worshipping the false gods
    • He introduced heavy taxation hence did not observe the brotherhood law
    • He disregarded the advice of God’s prophet when he built worship places for the false gods
    • By signing trade and marriage agreement with his neighbours, he relied on human dings rather than god.
    • He disobeyed the instructions of his father, David that he should rely solely on god.
    • He subjected the Israelites to forced labour.
    • He killed his half-brother Adonijah which was against the Ten Commandment.
    • He practiced nepotism by exempting his from forced labour
    • He sold part of Israelites territory.  Israel’s land belonged to God and nobody had the right to sell it.


    1. c) Challenges faced by prophets Elijah in Israel
    • He had to deal with widespread idolatry and apostasy among the Israelites
    • He had to address the rampant corruption and injustice
    • There was religious persecution. Jezebel killed some of the prophets of Yahweh
    • There were threats on this life from Jezebel and Ahab.
    • There were many false prophets of Baal and Asherah brought to Israel by Jezebel.
    • He was falsely accused by King Ahab of being a trouble maker
    • He had difficulty convincing the people that he was a true prophet of god.
    • He had to prove to the people that Yahweh is the true God.


    1. a) Leadership qualities found in the person of Nehemiah which leaders today can emulate
    • Trust in God
    • Being prayerful
    • Courage
    • Hard Work and commitment
    • Team spirit
    • Planning and organizational skills
    • Compassion
    • Patriotism
    • Wisdom and decisiveness
    • Role models
    • Honesty


    1. Relevance of Nehemiah’s exemplary life to St. Luke’s gospel and Christians


    • Prayerful life- Nehemiah’s constant prayer gave him strength, Jesus and courage in all his undertakings, Jesus in Luke’s gospel emphasizes the need to pray Christians today are urged to pray Christians today are urged to pray without ceasing
    • Good leadership qualities – Nehemiah’s good leadership qualities e.g. wisdom and courage.  As Nehemiah, Jesus in Luke’s gospel courageously withstood hostilities even to the point of death.  Christians today should lead by example.
    • Caring for the needy-Nehemiah was against the oppression of the needy and the poor, Luke’s gospel portray Jesus as being concerned with the less fortunate in society, Christians today should support the less fortunate and protect them from exploitation
    • Condemnation of evil-  both Nehemiah and Jesus condemned evils or injustices in society Christians today should condemn evils in the society without fear.
    • Guidance by scriptures –  Nehemiah was guided by the scriptures of the Old Testament, likewise Jesus was guided by the scriptures in his work.  Christians should live by the guidance of the work of God.
    • Nehemiah was opposed and rejected but never despaired.  Likewise, Jesus never despaired as he carried out his mission.  Christians should not despair when spreading the Gospel of Christ
    • Nehemiah’s quality of commitment and tolerance- despite persecution is shown by Jesus himself in St. Luke’s gospel; Christians today should be committed to the work of the Ministry in spite of the persecution they face.
    • Covenant renewal- Nehemiah renewed the covenant with God where the Jews as a group publicly confessed their sins in Luke’s gospel we see repentance and forgiveness focused on the individual  for Christians today repentance is personal
    • Cleansed the temple to restore its holiness like Nehemiah, Jesus was angry when the Jews turned the temple into a market place
    • Sabbath observance –  Nehemiah’s belief in strict observance of the Sabbath law is not shared by Jesus as shown in Luke’s gospel


    1. c) Occasions when prayers were offered in traditional African societies
    • Before going to war
    • When taking oaths
    • Before planting
    • During times of natural calamities e.g. drought, famine, etc
    • During ceremonies/rituals to make rites of passage e.g. birth, initiation etc
    • When sickness struck the society
    • To seek god’s intervention in difficult times


    1. a) Factors which guarded an individual against any form of discrimination in

    Traditional African societies.

    • Common religious beliefs
    • Corporate sense of living/communal sense of living
    • Common customs and norms/taboos
    • Fear of curses
    • Fear of punishment from God/ancestors
    • Age set systems ensured protection for all
    • Sense of communal sharing
    • Sense of communal ownership of property
    • Division of labour
    • Communal work groups


    1. Ways in which Traditional African religion prepared the Africans for


    • Belief in a supernatural God
    • Belief in God as the ancestor/loving powerful/provider/just/merciful god
    • Belief in reward and punishment
    • Belief in spirit/ancestors-for Africans living dead for Christianity saints/ancestors like Abraham, David etc.
    • Religious rituals e.g. offerings and sacrifices/prayers/religious songs
    • Religious leaders/ religious specialists
    • Idea of prophets and prophesy
    • Seeking forgiveness from God
    • Moral values

    1. c) Forms of discrimination in our society today
    • Gender discrimination – women are discriminated in many areas
    • Tribal discrimination – there is a lot of discrimination along tribal lines
    • Racial discrimination
    • Academic – there is a group between the educated and non educated
    • Economic status- the rich/wealthy discriminate against the poor
    • Physical disability-  The physically disabled in our society are looked down upon in many area e.g. employment
    • Religion/renunciation – various people from different religions and denominations discriminate one another e.g. the Muslims and Christians, Catholics and protestants
    • Age- the young generation believe that older generation is outdated and old fashioned
    • Type of jobs-some people believe that their jobs are important than others



    1. a) acquisition of wealth in traditional African communities
    • Through bride price which was given as a token of appreciation to the girls’ parent
    • Through inheritance of property from parents, guardians and relatives
    • Through gifs given in appreciation of talent, good conduct or loyalty
    • Through warfare and raids
    • Through marrying many wives and getting many children who provided labour
    • Through crafts like weaving, pottery and iron working.
    • Those with talents like medicine men, diviners and rainmakers sold their services


    1. b) African moral values that contributed to harmonious living in the society.
    • Hospitality to strangers and guests was highly encouraged
    • Communal work enhanced tolerance towards different people
    • Initiates were taught to live together in harmony
    • The youth learnt to endure suffering and hardships and control tempers and sexual desires
    • Individuals were taught to respect one another right from childhood
    • People obeyed community rules and observed customs and taboos
    • In all aspects of life, Africans care for one another.  This provided c—Operation and unity
    • Elders settled disputes amicably
    • Elders were respected and whatever they said was obeyed
    • Unity was emphasized  in terms of communal work and living
    • Duties and leisure activities were divided according to age and gender.


    1. c) Factors affecting traditional African heritage today
    • Foreign religions like Christianity, Islam and Hinduism
    • Foreign cultures and values
    • Western education
    • Money economy
    • New forms of employment systems and policies
    • Modern science and technology
    • Rural-urban migration
    • Improved infrastructure
    • The mass media
    • Modern medicine.




    1. a) the role of Moses in the history of the Israelite
    • He received God’s call with a mission to liberate the Israelites
    • He performed extra-ordinary miracles for the purpose of over-powering the pharaoh so as to liberate the Israelites from Egyptian bondage
    • He led the Israelites throughout the wilderness during the Exodus
    • He mediated between god and the Israelites throughout the period of the Exodus
    • He endured suffering for the sake of the Israelites who complained and asked him for provision
    • He endure suffering for the sake of the Israelites who complained and asked him for provision.
    • He led the Israelites into making the covenant with God on Mt. Sinai
    • He was given the Ten Commandments by God on Mt. Sinai
    • He was sought God’s providence for the Israelite e.g. Manna and water
    • Moses made the Israelites against hostile desert tribes e.g. the amelekites
    • He led them during the crossing of the Read Zoa



    1. b) Role of the African traditional council of elders
    • guidance and counseling in the community
    • settling disputes e.g. land/family
    • Making decisions on important matters affecting the society
    • Blessed warriors before going to war
    • Rewarded the warriors after a successful war against enemies
    • Planning marriage parties or occasions
    • Selecting suitable marriage partners for those who had undergone initiation
    • Performing priestly duties e.g. prayers/sacrifices/offerings
    • Maintaining traditional cultural values or standards
    • Preserving the sacred worship places/points
    • Ensuring that the dead were honorably buried.
    • Mediating between the living and the spirit world
    • Meeting/administering punishment to the offenders


    1. c) Lessons about God from the call of Moses
    • God is loving/caring
    • God has concern for the suffering of his people
    • God is a saving god
    • God can send anyone e.g. Moses a stummerer
    • God is everywhere
    • God expects people to obey him
    • God is Holy
    • God can appear to people in different styles
    • God can appear to people in different styles
    • God has human qualities e.g. He can talk
    • God has human qualities e.g. He can talk
    • God is the provider
    • God is all knowing
    • God keeps his promises e.g. to Abraham.


    1. a) Effects of Adam’s rebellion against God
    • The whole Adamic race became alienated from god
    • Man changed and became prone to sin
    • The ground was cursed on the account of man
    • Childbirth and work became associated with hardship
    • Man began to take life of fellow man
    • Lifespan of man was reduced.
    • God confused human language after the flood
    • Death sentence is passé upon all people
    • There is enmity between man and the wild animals
    • God felt regret and remorse for having created human beings
    • The good relationship between man and the wild animals
    • God felt regret and remorse for having created human beings
    • The good relationship between man and woman is destroyed
    • What had been good and innocent became shameful
    1. b) Causes of evil in traditional African communities
    • Evil spirits
    • Malicious ancestral spirits
    • Evil people like witches, wizard and sorcerers
    • Breaking of oaths
    • Bad Omen



    • Both believe that God is the Supreme being and is good.
    • Both view sin as arising from human beings disobedience, greed and selfishness
    • Both view evil and misfortunes as arising out of a curse by elders because of committing some offence
    • In both cases evil may result from failing in a social or spiritual obligation
    • Both agree that the result of sin and evil is suffering
    • In both cases sin and evil results in human beings, separated from God and the end of the original state of goodness and innocence
    • In both God is the guardian of morality law and order.


    3          a) reasons why Elijah faced danger and hostility in Israel

    • Elijah prophesied a three- year drought which resulted in severe famine in Israel
    • Elijah lived and preached at a time when Baalism was the official religion and Yahweh’s prophets were being killed
    • Elijah killed prophets of Baal resulting in threats by jezebel to kill him
    • Elijah was commanded by God on Mt. Horeb to anoint Hazael as King of Syria and Jehu to take over from Ahab, this seemed like conspiracy against the kings of Israel and Syria by Elijah
    • Elijah declared God’s judgment on King Ahab when the king possessed Naboth’s vineyard. This exposed him a lot of danger.
    • In the wilderness, Elijah faced starvation due to lack of food and water.


    1. b) Five evils committed by King Ahab according to Prophet Elijah
    • Worshipped Baal and Asherah
    • Built temples for Baal and Asher
    • Named Jezebel who was not an Israelite contrary to Old testament teaching
    • Killing Naboth
    • Taking Naboth’s vineyard.


    1. b) How God worked through Elijah to reveal himself
    • The fire that came from heaven and burnt the sacrifice at Mt.Carmel
    • Thunderstorm after the long dry spell
    • Elijah was fed by ravens in the wilderness.
    • The widow of Zarephath finishing oil and flour
    • In the cave there was thunder, lightning and a small still voice
    • Elijah was taken up by a chariot of fire.

    4          a) Why Yahweh’s prophet condemned the way of worship

    • The people became concerned with external observances while their hearts were far from god
    • They broke the Ten Commandments
    • Religion became too commercial as people thought they could buy favours from God
    • The people forgot the might works of god and worshipped foreign gods
    • The poor were despised and exploited
    • The widows and orphans were neglected
    • The people believed in false prophets and prophecies
    • The people practiced syncretism


    1. b) Jeremiah’s symbolic actions in his prophecy of judgment
    • Jeremiah a linen waistcloth and wore it.  It became useless after he left it in a cleft of rocks by the Euphrates Rivers.  This symbolized how god would punish the Israelites by destroying their pride.
    • Jeremiah was commanded not to marry or have children.  He was not to join those or have children or comfort anyone.  This symbolized the destruction of the Israelites as a result of their sin
    • He was instructed to visit a potter’s house and watch the potter as he made clay vessels in the same way as the potter remold the nation of Israel and make it as he intended it to be.
    • God instructed Jeremiah to buy an earthen flask and break it before some of the elders and senior priests in the valley of Hinnam.   This symbolized the destruction that God would bring upon Jerusalem.
    • Jeremiah was shown two baskets of figs that were placed in front of the temple.
    • One basket had good figs while the other had bad figs.  The good figs represented the remnant that would return to Jerusalem from exile in Babylon.
    • Jeremiah was to make a wooden yoke and put it on his neck.  This symbolized the oppression of the Israelites by the Babylonians.


    1. c) The role of the church in religious reforms
    • Preaching the good news
    • Building churches
    • Supporting the provision of education
    • Helping in bible translations
    • Bringing  more souls to Christ through crusades and the mass media
    • Assisting the destitute
    • Condemning evils in the society
    • Leading by example
    • Taking part in election
    • Assisting the government in creating jobs
    • Preaching forgiveness
    • Taking relief food to famine-stricken areas.


    1. a) The call of Amos
    • Amos came from Judah from a place called Tekoa
    • He was a dresser of sycamore trees before he received his call
    • His call to be a prophet came through five dramatic visions
    • He was shown a great plague of locusts destroying all plants in the land
    • He was shown a great fire burning up the land
    • He saw God standing beside a wall with a plumb line
    • He saw a basket of ripe fruits
    • He saw the destruction of the temple where the Israelites offered their sacrifices


    1. b) Social injustices condemned by prophet Amos
    • The selling of debtors into slavery
    • The oppression of the weak and the poor
    • The exploitation of the poor by the rich
    • Corruption in the law courts
    • Cheating in business/use of false sales
    • Selling worthless goods at high prices
    • Lies by false priest and prophets


    1. c) Factors that hinder Christians from helping the needy
    • Too many needy cases
    • Lack of experts to help with special need
    • Tribal alignments and zoning
    • Political leanings where Christians belonging to a certain political party are not free to help needy people what belong to a different party
    • Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country making those religions inaccessible.
    • Economic demands and inflations leave Christians with nothing to help the poor with
    • Indifference by some Christians to the plight of the needy.  Some Christians are too attached to their material wealth.
    • Lack of accountability and transparency discourages some Christians from helping the poor
    • Denominational differences which make Christians refuse to help the needy member of a different church
    • Lack of plans and systems on how the help provided is spend
    • Lack of awareness by some Christians on aims giving.
    • Sometimes it is not easy to tell those who are genuinely in need.

    1. a)         The role sponsors in traditional African initiation ceremonies
    • They offered guidance and counseling to the initiates
    • They educated the initiates on their duties and responsibilities as adults
    • They gave the initiates lessons on sex and family life
    • They encouraged the initiates to face the operation with courage
    • They gave moral and physical support during the operation
    • They acted as a link between the candidates and their families
    • They nursed the initiates back to health
    • They played the role of members to the initiates.


    1. Ways in which marriage contributed to social relationships in the traditional African society
    • Marriage led to the extension if kinship ties
    • Marriage could be used to reconcile two warring clans or communities
    • Marriage elevated the social status of a man and a woman in society
    • After marriage the couple was expected to procreate and start a family to perpetuate procreate and start a family to perpetuate the life of the community
    • A new bond developed between a husband and a wife and between members of their families
    • Marriage was a covenant.
    1. c) Why prostitution was rare in the traditional African society.
    • Prostitution was forbidden
    • Men lived with their wives.  There was no rural-urban migration
    • Polygamy reduced the number of unmarried women and the need for other women outside marriage
    • Sexual offenders were highly punished
    • Virginity was highly values
    • Sex education was provided during initiation to avoid such behaviour
    • People lived communally so there were no cases of the needy
    • During initiation the initiates were taught society morals
    • Morals concerning husband/wife relationship were taught during initiation to avoid such behaviour.




    1          a)         Qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah

    • He would be god’s prophet
    • He would prepare the way for the messiah
    • He would bring joy to Zechariah and others
    • He would be a Nazarite and would not drink any strong drink.  He would live a simple life
    • He would be courageous in carrying out his duties
    • His name would be John to show that God is gracious to his people
    • He would be great
    • He would be filled with the Holy spirit
    • He would have the spirit and power of Elijah


    1. b) Why John was referred to as the second Elijah
    • Just like Elijah, John also lived in the wilderness
    • John was also filled with Holy spirit and Proclaimed God’s message to the people
    • He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened by Jezebel
    • He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened by Jezebel
    • He was a great prophet of his time
    • He led a simple life and faced many problems like hunger


    1. c) Ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world
    • They should depend on Jesus
    • They should be well versed with scriptures so that they can refer to the bible.
    • They should seek guidance and counseling
    • They should attend Bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible
    • They should have faith or believe in god to help them during trials
    • They should avoid wrong company
    • They should take part in positive leisure
    • They should avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin
    • They should resist Satan.


    2          a)         Signs of eschatology according to St. Luke

    • False prophet claiming to be speaking in Jesus name
    • Wars would arise between nations
    • Strange sings from heaven would be seen
    • There would be natural calamities e.g. earthquakes, famines and plagues
    • Disciples would be arrested, persecuted and imprisoned.
    • Disruption in the sky and in the sea would be experienced
    • Nations will be in despair
    • People will fear and faint as they witnessed these signs.


    1. b) Evidence that shows that Jesus rose from the dead
    • The empty tomb
    • Assurance of the angel to the women
    • The testimony of the disciples on the way to Emmaus
    • Jesus’ appearance to the eleven
    • Jesus’ appearance to Peter
    • Thomas felt Jesus’ scars
    • Jesus appeared to Magdalene, James and Paul
    • His ascension into heaven.


    1. c) Lessons that a Christians learn about the nature of Jesus from the testimony of repentant thief
    • Jesus is forgiving
    • Jesus was going to heaven/paradise
    • Jesus had power over death
    • Jesus was innocent /sinless
    • Jesus was the son of God, He was the messiah king or savior
    • Jesus rewards those who repent
    • He is compassionate/merciful
    • He gives eternal life.  He is the life and resurrection
    • Jesus is worthy of respect of honour
    • Jesus is God.


    3          a)         Illustrations of unity of believers in New Testament

    • The people of god
    • The body of Christ
    • The vine and the branches
    • The church, the bride


    1. b) New Testament teachings on the unity of believers
    • Believers in Christ are in a covenant relationship with god.  They are the chosen people
    • The are a royal priesthood
    • Believers in Christ should be united as they are members of the body of Christ
    • Believers in Christ have been given different gifts by the Holy spirit which should be used for the benefit of all and enhance church unity.
    • Believers have been called to live a life worthy of Gods calling by being humble, gentle and loving. This is because they are bund by one spirit, one Lord, one baptism and one faith in one God.
    • Believers should display Godly character in order to remain united.
    • They should be submissive to Christ as he is the head of the church.
    • Gods’ relationship with his people is perfect and will last eternally.
    • God expects His people to be Holy because sinners will be punished. Sinners are not part of the unity of believers.

    (c )       Reasons that have caused churches to split in Kenya today

    • Misinterpretation of scriptures causes disagreement.
    • Leadership wrangles causes division in church.
    • Tribalism and other forms of discrimination in the church
    • Disagreements have risen on whether to incorporate /some African cultural practices or
    • not.
    • Inability to agree on aspects of worshipping speaking in tongues, role of the Holy spirit etc
    • The appointment of women leaders have caused some to move away as they regard this unbiblical.
    • -the Kenyan constitution allows freedom of worship and this motivates Christians to form their churches.


    1. (a) Situation when critical thinking can be used
    • In examinations when answering questions that demand expressions of different opinions.
    • In determining what is true and false from the evidence before one.
    • In challenging your friends when they do things that are against the accepted norms of society
    • In questioning issues that require elaborate explanations.
    • Refusing to be discouraged by life challenges.
    • Not giving up when carrying out various responsibilities and tasks.
    • In acknowledging and respecting views of other people on a given situation.
    • In identifying your life goals and working hard to achieve them.


    (b)       Christian values that enhances the creation of just society.

    • Love, justice/fairness, Respect, Chastity
    • Humility, Honesty, reliability/faithfulness
    • Persistence/perseverance.


    (c )       This that makes a student feel confident with oneself.

    • Accepting challenges and trying out new ideas.
    • Developing close and healthy relationships with other people.
    • Believing in yourself and your abilities.
    • Being the person you want to be.
    • Believing that you can succeed.
    • Being assertive and refusing to be pushed into what you do not believe in.


    1. (a) Advantages that a Christian family have when members practice the


                “Do not commit adultery”

    • It controls members against unfaithfulness.
    • It controls the spread of STD’s and AIDS.
    • It curbs the family breakdown due to unfaithfulness.
    • It creates conducive environment for bringing up of children.
    • It limits quarrels and fights due to unfaithfulness.
    • It ensures trust between couples.
    • Curbs poverty because they may save money that would be used for extra-marital affairs.
    • It controls psychological problems that may lead to unbecoming behaviour.
    • Members of the family get blessings from God.

    (b)       Problems that are related to family life today.

    • Separation i.e. spouses working in far places.
    • Adultery and unfaithfulness.
    • Misuse of family resources.
    • Generation gap brings problems between parents and children.
    • Difficult and handicapped children.
    • Cultural differences partners causing from different ethnic groups.
    • Family parenthood, Divorce
    • Sicknesses and diseases.
    • Domestic violence, child abuse


    (c )       Reasons why HIV/AIDS campaign is ineffective in Kenya.

    • Cultural differences e.g wife inheritance.
    • Denial, attributing the pandemic to curses and witchcraft.
    • Affluence and permissiveness in society.
    • Ignorance of the effects of the pandemic.
    • Lack of funds.
    • Inadequate commitment from the government
    • Poverty leading to promiscuity.


    1. (a) The importance of professional code of ethics.
      • They contain rules relating to employment promotion, payment and termination of services.
      • They give guidance on how professionals should relate to one another and those that they serve.
      • They safeguard professionals against being compromised in their jobs.
      • They determine the expected levels of performance of a particular job.
      • They serve as a measure of competence.
      • They act as a measure of quality service.
      • They serve as a protection to individual professionals.
      • They earn public trust in professionals.

    (b) Ways in which Christians use leisure to glorify God.

        • In worship; (praying, reading the bible, singing and spending time with God)
        • In doing works as charity, assisting the sick, the old the poor, the disabled.
        • Relaxing with family and friends.
        • Spreading the word of God.
        • For the development of community projects
        • Fellowshipping with others.


    (c) Effects of alcoholism and drug abuse.

      • Mismanagement of family resources.
      • Domestic violence
      • Loss of one’s job.
      • Separation and divorce.
      • Sicknesses and disease e.g. lung cancer from smoking cigarettes.
      • Increase in crimes.
      • Dropping out of school; for students.
      • Loss of respect.
      • Overburdening the family e.g. by paying for rehabilitation of the victim.



    1. (a) The role of John the Baptist as a link between the Old and the New testament.
      • John fulfils the Old Testament, prophecies as the forerunner of the messiah.
      • John saw the messiah with his own eyes.
      • John introduced Jesus Christ to the people.
      • John’s ministry prepared people’s hearts to receive the messiah.
      • John lived two worlds. The world of the Old and the world of the New Testament
      • John prepared the first two disciples of Jesus.
      • John’s lifestyle is reminiscent of the figure of prophet Elijah who was one of the greatest Old Testament prophets.


    (b) Why Jesus was baptized by John.

        • Jesus wanted to confirm and show his approval of John’s ministry.
        • He saw it as God’s plan of saving human kind.
        • He saw it as a way fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies about the messiah.
        • He wanted to identify Himself with the sinful mankind.
        • Accepting baptism meant His final acceptance of the work of salvation which
        • was to be completed through His suffering.
        • Baptism provided an opportunity for manifestation of the Holy trinity that is the
        • Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.


    1. c) The importance of baptism to Christian churches today
    • Baptism qualifies the new convert to become a member of a Christian denomination
    • Through baptism Christians identify themselves with Jesus Christ and all that He stands for.
    • Through baptism Christians receive the power of the Holy spirit
    • It is a symbol of death and resurrection
    • Through baptism Christians receive the power of the Holy Spirit
    • It is a symbol of death and resurrection
    • Through baptism one is considered to be a child of God
    • Baptism effects complete forgiveness of sins
    • Baptism prepares Christians for the kingdom of god.


    2          a)         The call of the first disciples Luke 5: 1-11

    • One day Jesus stood on the shores of Lake Gennesaret/sea of Galilee
    • He saw two boats close to the shore and got into one of them
    • He taught people from the boat
    • After he had finished preaching, he asked Simon to cast the net into the deep sea for a catch
    • At first Simon was reluctant because he had been fishing the whole day and night and had
    • Caught nothing.
    • Simon eventually agreed and cast the nets into the sea.  He caught such as huge number of fish that the nets began to tear.

    1. b) Lessons that Christians can learn from the call of the first disciples
    • God still calls people today to serve Him in different areas e.g. pastors
    • God can choose anybody to serve Him regardless of their status in society
    • Those who are called by God are expected to be humble
    • Christians should work together as a team
    • There is hope for those who follow Jesus
    • God reveals Himself to people in everyday activities
    • Christian vocation may require renunciation of family ties and occupation


    1. c) Ways in which the church prepares people to serve god
    • Preparing new converts for baptism
    • Teaching the new converts the Christian doctrines
    • Encouraging them to read the Bible
    • Organizing seminars for specific groups of people e.g. women, youth etc.
    • Sending those who are willing to theological colleges or seminaries
    • Having continuous religious training in spiritual and social matters


    3          a)         The triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

    • Jesus approached Jerusalem passing through Bethphage and Bethany
    • He sent two of his disciples to a village to get him a donkey that had never been ridden
    • If the owner demanded to know why they were untying it they were to respond “The Lord has need of it”
    • They got the donkey, threw their cloaks over it and helped Jesus to sit on it.
    • People spread their garment of the road for Him.
    • The crowd followed praising and rejoicing
    • The Pharisees asked Jesus to silence them
    • Jesus responded that if his followers were silent the stones would start shouting.


    1. b) What the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about his kingdom.
    • Jesus is a triumphant and victorious king
    • The donkey was a symbol of humility and peace
    • He was not an earthly military
    • Jesus was the promised messiah
    • He was greeted as a king, the same way kings of Israel were greeted with acclamation and joy.
    • By riding on a donkey Jesus fulfilled the prophecy of Zechariah.
    • Jesus’ kingdom is for the least and the lost
    • God’s kingdom is a kingdom of peace
    • Jesus was a humble king.

    1. c) Lessons that Christians learn from the triumphant entry.
    • Christians should prepare to receive Jesus into their lives like the crowd that escorted him into Jerusalem
    • Christians should be channels of peace like Jesus
    • Christians should expect opposition and resistance as they witness to Christ
    • Christians should praise and thank god for sending Jesus
    • Christians should be humble
    • Christians should be bold in their witnessing to Christ like the crowds that followed Jesus to Jerusalem
    • Church leaders should be servants of their followers.


    4    a)   Meaning of leisure. Leisure is the time when one is free from work or other

    duties. It is the time to relax.


    Importance of leisure in the life of a person

    • -It gives people time to rest
    • Leisure provides people with time for recreation
    • Leisure time allows people to attend social occasions
    • It allows people to travel and visit friends and relatives
    • Leisure time allows people to attend social occasions
    • It allows people to travel and visit friends and relatives
    • Leisure time can be used to enhance and acquire new skills and knowledge
    • Some people use leisure time to develop their talent and hobbies
    • Some people use their leisure time to engage in income generating activities
    • Leisure time can also be used for worshipping god.


    1. b) Factors that lead people to misuse leisure in modern society
    • Lack of money – Most leisure activities are very expensive to afford
    • Lack of parental control
    • Bad company
    • Concentration of leisure activities in urban areas
    • Failure to vary and balance leisure
    • Lack of appropriate education and guidance films
    • Too much money leads to overindulgence
    • Social oppression and injustice may interfere with people’s freedom
    • Lack of guidance and counseling

    5          a)         Ways in which employers should show respect for the human dignity of


    • -By paying them just wages
    • -By providing them with healthy and safe working conditions.
    • – By showing concern for their needs and problems
    • -By ensuring that the work assigned to workers is matched to their physical, mental and intellectual abilities.
    • -By ensuring that employees work for a reasonable number of hours with rest in between the hours
    • -By ensuring that employees get their annual leaves and holidays annuals leaves and holidays
    • -By being just fair and charitable to employees especially those in delicate conditions such as the bereaved the pregnant and the elderly
    • -By motivating workers, through promotions salary increments, praise for work done overtime payments and other benefits
    • -By ensuring there is freedom of expression and association at the work place
    • -By ensuring there is no form of harassment at the workplace.



    1. b) Responsibilities of employees to employers
    • -To carry out their duties efficiently and to the best of their ability.
    • -To promote the success of the company, institution or organization
    • -To show respect and loyalty to the employer
    • -To observe the terms of contract according to the expectation of the employer’s property
    • -To show goodwill to the employer
    • -Increase in the gap between the rich and the poor
    • -Increase in crime and immorality
    • -Increase in HIV/AIDS infections, death and orphaned children
    • Emergence of slums in most urban areas
    • Insensitivity by the rich to the plight of the poor.


    1. b) Factors that made people poor according to the traditional African communities
    • -Laziness, raids, sickness
    • -Lack of inheritance, natural calamities
    • -Curses from parents and relatives


    1. c) Steps that a Christian can take to lessen the gap between the rich and the


    • -By urging the government to put in place price
    • -Control measures
    • -By urging the government to ensure equal development in all areas
    • -To co-operate with other workers for the welfare and success of the company of institution
    • -To avoid joining in strikes and go-slows in case of unreasonable demands
    • -To perform one’s duty with honesty, diligence and integrity
    • -To pray for the success of the employer and the other employees


    1. d) The problems that self-employed people in Kenya today face
    • -Financial constraints
    • -Inability to identify proper markets for goods produced
    • -Lack of managerial skills
    • -stiff competition from firms dealing with similar products
    • -Theft and fire risks
    • -Poor marketing strategies
    • -attraction towards imported goods leading to the neglect of locally produced goods
    • -wrong advice from friends and relatives
    • -Lack of credit facilities
    • -High rent
    • -The temptation to overprice goods


    1. a) How poverty is manifested in the society today
    • -Poor living conditions
    • Hopelessness and despair
    • -Inability to meet basic needs
    • -By ensuring fair distribution of land and other resources
    • -By urging the government to introduce fair tax systems base on one’ income
    • -by building homes for the aged and orphaned children
    • -by paying taxes
    • -By building homes for the jobless
    • -By providing education and vocational training to the poor
    • -By assisting the poor to access loans and other credit facilities
    • -By advocating for the application of values of hard work, love, justice, fairness integrity and honesty in work and business enterprises
    • -By avoiding corrupt practices
    • -By urging the government to be accountable to their citizens.
    • -By emulating Christ and the values he stood for.





    K.C.S.E 2009 QUESTIONS

    PAPER 1

    1. a) From the Genesis stories of creation, outline seven teachings about human

    beings.                                                                                     (7 mks)

    1. b) with reference to the story of the fall of human beings in Genesis e, state

    four effects of sin on Adam and Eve.                                     (8mks)

    1. c)         How does the church help to bring back members who have fallen from

    the faith?                                                                                 (5mks)

    1. a) Explain four characteristics of a covenant demonstrated in the covenant

    between God and Abraham                                                    (8mks)

    1. b) Give seven similarities between the Jewish and traditional African practice

    of circumcision.                                                                      ( 7mks)

    1. c) Identify five lessons that Christians learn about God from the call of

    Abram.                                                                                    (5mks)

    1. a) State seven functions of the Temple in the Jewish community. (7mks)
    2. b) Identify six ways which show that King Solomon turned away from the

    covenant way of life.                                                                          (6mks)

    1. c) Give seven factors that have led to the increase of Christian denominations

    in Kenya today.                                                                                  (7mks)

    1. a) Give  four similarities between prophets in the Old Testament and

    traditional African communities.                                                        (8mks)

    1. b) Outline five teachings of Prophet Amos on the remnant and restoration of

    the Israelites (Amos 9:8-15)                                                  (5 mks)


    1. c) State the relevance of Prophet Amos teaching on election of Israel to

    Christians in Kenya today.                                                     (7 mks)

    1. a) State four promises that the Israelites made when they renewed their

    covenant with God during the time of Nehemiah (10: 28-29)   (8mks)

    1. b) Identify five final reforms carried out by Nehemiah to restore the worship

    of God in Judah.                                                                     ( 5mks)

    1. c) Write down seven problems that Christian leaders in Kenya face in their

    work today.                                                                                         (7mks)

    1. a) Outline six rituals performed during the birth of a baby in traditional

    African Communities.                                                                         (6mks)

    1. b) Give six reasons why children are important in traditional African

    communities.                                                                                       (6mks)

    1. c) Explain four ways children are made responsible members in traditional

    African communities.                                                              (8 mks)



    PAPER 2

    1. a) Outline the message of Prophet Isaiah about the Messiah.    (8mks)
    2. b) State six activities that took place when Jesus was born. (Luke 2:6-20)


    1. c) Explain the importance of singing in a Christian service.      (6mks)
    2. a) Describe the incident when Jesus was rejected at Nazareth.

    (Luke 4: 16-30)                                                                       (7mks)

    1. b) Give four reasons why Jesus faced opposition from the Pharisees in

    Galilee.  (Luke 5: 12-6:11)                                                                 (8mks)

    1. c) State five ways in which church leader can respond to those who oppose

    them in their work.                                                                             (5mks)

    3          a)         Identify five teachings that Jesus made to the guests at the Pharisees’

    house.  (Luke 14:15-24)                                                                      (5mks)

    1. b) Give four reasons why Jesus used the parable of the great feast in his

    teachings.    (Luke 14:15-24)                                                  (8mks)

    1. c) Write down seven reasons why Christians take part in the Lords’ supper .

    (7 mks)

    4          a)         Give seven reasons why Jesus sent the Holy Spirit to the disciples

    after His ascension.                                                                             (7mks)

    1. b) Identify four teachings of Saint Paul on the similarities between the church

    and husband-wife relationship.  (Ephesians 5: 21-32)

    1. c) State five ways in which Christians are able to identify those who

    possess the gifts of the Holy spirit.                                         (5mks)

    5          a)         Outline eight Christian teachings on work                             (8mks)

    1. b) State the role of professional ethics in a work place.             (6 mks)
    2. c) Give six reasons why Christians should not involve themselves in gabling.

    (6 mks)


    ANSWERS TO K.C.S.E 2009


    PAPER 1



    • Human beings were put in the Garden of Eden to till and keep it.  They should respect God’s creation by cultivating and preserving it.
    • -Human beings are responsible beings.  They were given free will – the right to choose
    • -Human beings are social beings.  They were given free will- the right to choose
    • -Human beings are social beings.  They require companionship, god gave Adam, Eve as a companion
    • -Both man and woman are equal in the eyes of God.  The two depend on each other and therefore their relationship is complementary
    • -Human beings are superior to the rest of God’s creation.  They were created in God’s own image and likeness.  He took time to mould them unlike other creatures which he created by word of mouth
    • -Human beings were given dominion over God’s creation.  They were also given ability to think.
    • -Work and leisure are God’s gifts to human kind.  Like god, Human beings are expected to work in order to feed themselves
    • -Procreation is a command by god.  Human beings are commanded “to fill the earth and multiply”
    • -Marriage was instituted by God at creation.  He blessed it.  It is for companionship, survival and continuity of the human race.
    • -god is the origin of everything on earth-man has a duty to take care of God’s creation and serve as a steward.
    • -Human beings were made to have fellowship with God meaning they are to communicate with God through worship.



    • -Human kind became mortal i.e. man could die
    • -God caused enmity between man and the serpent
    • -Man became target for evil and hardship
    • -Man was sent out of the garden
    • -Man experienced shame, guilt and fear
    • -The relationship between man and god was destroyed
    • -Increase of pain during child birth
    • -Language of man was confused leading to many laces



    • -Through outreach
    • -Through evangelism
    • -through revival meetings in the churches
    • -Through prayer
    • -Through prayer
    • -Through guidance and counseling
    • -Providing love and care


    1. a)
    • It has promises to be fulfilled
    • It was between two unequal parties
    • It was solemn/binding/permanent/long lasting
    • It was unconditional. It had an outside sign through sacrifice and rituals of animals.
    • It was initiated by god
    • It was voluntary whereby both parties were willing to enter into covenant/mutual



    • -In both it fostered a sense of belonging among the initiates
    • -In both there’re is shedding of blood
    • -In both animals are slaughtered to celebrate it
    • -Both involve the cutting off the foreskin
    • -In both it is held as a tradition passed from one generation to another
    • -In both, it is performed by a specialist
    • -In both it is compulsory
    • -In both, it is a symbol of unity with the community
    • -both joined the initiates to God and the ancestors
    • -It marked full membership into the community
    • -In both, circumcision gives those who undergo it privileges within their communities
    • -In both it is a mark of identity



    • Obedience to God is important
    • Faith in God is rewarding
    • God took the initiative to repair the broken relationship with man by calling Abraham showing his loving nature
    • Faith is best seen in actions
    • God always works through men of faith
    • GOD always works through men of faith
    • God communicates with people
    • One’s background cannot prevent God from working through and with an individual.



    • -It was a house of prayer
    • -Children were presented for dedication to god in the temple
    • -The teaching of the law was conducted in the temple
    • -The Jewish religious festivals/feasts e.g. The Passover were celebrated in the temple.
    • -The priests offered sacrifices or burnt incense to /God in the temple
    • -It was a religious centre for the Jews where they held meeting
    • -It was a place of pilgrimage for Jews living in Palestine’s and the Jews of Diaspora.
    • -It was the seat of the Jewish council Sanhedrin
    • -The ark of the covenant was kept in the temple
    • -It was a dwelling place for priests.


    • -By selling a part of the ancestral land to non Jews
    • -He was a tyrant fulfilling earlier warnings of Prophet Samuel of enslaving his people though forced labour and high taxes.
    • -He built temples of pagan gods to please his wives
    • -In his old age, he worshipped the idols of his wives breaking his father’s advice to obey the Mosaic Law.
    • -He killed his own half brother Adonijah
    • -He spent more years (13)building his own palace and only 7 years building the temple
    • -Solomon married many foreign princesses who brought with them the worship of foreign gods in Israel.


    • -Greed for money
    • -rigidity from the mainstream churches
    • -Leadership wrangles
    • -differences in interpretation of the Bible
    • -Influence from secularism
    • -freedom of worship
    • -excommunication from other churches
    • -dissatisfaction of the way of worship and doctrines
    • -Discrimination in terms of ethnicity, gender and racism

    1. a)
    • Both were god’s messengers because they acted as mediators between God and the people.
    • Both received divine calling, had unusual spiritual powers and were charismatic.
    • Both received god’s revelations through dreams and visions
    • Both, were consulted by people during crisis
    • They were religious experts so could offer sacrifices and prayers
    • Both groups provided religious, political and social guidance to the leaders in the communities
    • In both cases, they communicated god’s will to the people
    • They also warned people about impending disaster such as drought and war.




    • Remnant referred to the small groups that would survive gods punishment/destruction
    • He taught that those who repent sincerely would be spared.
    • Only sinners would perish
    • Through the remnants, God’s promises would be fulfilled and blessings would come to the Nation
    • After exile, Judah and Israel would be restored and reunited into the strong kingdom
    • The restored kingdom would enjoy material prosperity
    • Remnant would recover their homeland and rebuild their ruined cities and live forever
    • God would again be their god and they will be his people


    • -Christians are chosen by God to serve him
    • -Christians should obey god’s commandments
    • -Christians should act as role models
    • -Christians should lead holy lives
    • -Jesus came to deliver Christians from the bondage of sin
    • -Christians should not despise those who have not received salvation
    • -God would reject any Christian who fails him.


    5          a)

    –           They would live according to God’s laws, obey all his commands and requirements

    –           Would not intermarry with foreigners neither buy corn or anything else from them.

    • Would cancel debts every seventh year
    • Would contribute annual temple expenses and ensure house of God is well kept
    • Would provide sacrifices and offerings for the temple and arrange for provisions of wood for burnt sacrifices according to the law
    • Would offer first of their harvest, dedicate their first born sons and flocks as required by law
    • They would pay their tithes in accordance with the law
    • They would keep the Sabbath day Holy.


    • Cleansing of the temple
    • The purification of priesthood and the office of the Levites
    • Restoration of the observance of the Sabbath
    • Nehemiah forbid intermarriages between the Israelites and the foreigners e.g. Moabites
    • He ensured that the Levites and singers were given their dues or tithes and appointed trustworthy people to be in charge  of the stores and the contributions
    • Reinstatement of the Levites and the temple workers



    • Lack of co-operation from the congregation
    • Human desire/ sexual immorality
    • Hostility environment
    • Too much expectations from people
    • Temptation to act unjustly e.g. acquire property
    • Inadequate knowledge on how to deal with various groups  g women/ youth/ choir/ rival groups
    • Too much time is expected from them
    • Feeling of despair/ unable to reach a large number of people
    • Inability to control the congregation
    • Confusion resulting from religious pluralism confusion from freedom of worship
    • Directive from the sate whereby they are required to give  messages  contrary to church teaching
    • Financial problems/ lack of enough funds


    • The father received praises
    • The church were given names
    • The mother and the baby were kept in seclusion
    • There was singing and dancing for a new live
    • The mother and the child were showered with gifts
    • The newborn was praised and blessed
    • There was feasting and celebration
    • There were ululation whose number was determined by the sex of the child and  screams
    • The mothers hair was cut or shaven for cleansing
    • The placenta was buried



    • A child act as link between the ancestors and the living through naming
    • A child will inherit parents in old age
    • Girls are a source of wealth through bride wealth
    • Boys offer protection for community
    • A child acts like a seal to the marriage
    • Continuity of the clan and community
    • They acted as a source of labour



    • Educated on their roles and responsibilities by their mothers, grandmothers/ fathers, uncles ad aunts.
    • The young accompanied their mother/ father in their daily chores like fetching water and herding
    • Moral teachings through story telling, myths, riddles, proverbs
    • Correction of behaviour through punishment
    • Through apprenticeship/ imitation children learn from their seniors



    1. (a)
    • That the Messiah will be called wonderful counselor, mighty God and prince of peace
    • He foretold that God would raise a righteous branch from David who would reign as king
    • The messiah would bring forgiveness of sins through his death as a sacrifice
    • The messiah would suffer in order to accomplish God’s work, hence the title ‘the suffering servant of God’.
    • Isaiah foresaw that a young virgin would conceive and bear a son who would be called Emmanuel meaning God with us’.
    • The messiah would be simple, ordinary person whose success in doing the work and the will of God would surprise many
    • The servant of Yahweh would be despised, rejected and ignored by many.

    He would be treated harshly, arrested, sentenced to death and executed in a shameful way

    • The anointed king would deliver the Israelites from their enemies and peace would prevail over the kingdom



    • An angel appeared to a group of shepherds and announced the good news of the birth of the saviour
    • A great army of angles appeared singing songs of praise to God
    • The shepherds rushed to Bethlehem where the angle had told them they would find the saviour lying in a manger
    • They found Jesus as they had been told
    • They praised and worshipped God
    • When Jesus was born, he was wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger



    • To praise God
    • To preach the word of God
    • It helps in evangelization
    • Through singing, the word of God reaches many people
    • Singing brings unity in the church
    • Christians grow spiritually and are able to serve God in a better way.
    • Christians worship God through singing


    1. (a)
    • He went to the synagogue in Nazareth and was given the scroll of the book of Isaiah and he explained that the property that he had read that he was the promised messiah had been fulfilled in him
    • The Jews did not believe that Jesus was the messiah. They expected a political and military messiah nut Jesus was a spiritual messiah
    • The people knew Jesus as an ordinary man. He was the son of Joseph the carpenter and Mary the simple village girl.
    • The Jews did not expect the messiah to come from such a simple background.
    • Jesus challenged their disbelief by comparing them unfavorably with the despised Gentiles
    • Who accepted God’s prophets yet the Israelites rejected them
    • He explained that prophets are never accepted in their home areas


    • Because he claimed to be the messiah yet he did not deliver the Jews from their enemies as they expected the messiah to do.
    • Jesus attitude towards the Sabbath. He healed people on the Sabbath which was wrong according to them.
    • Jesus claim to have power to forgive sins which was blasphemy according to the Jews as they believed only God  had the  power to forgive  sins
    • Jesus and his disciples failed to observe the law on fasting
    • Jesus’ association with tax collectors and sinners. Jesus befriended tax collectors and even accepted invitations to their houses
    • The popularity of Jesus especially because of the miracles he performed



    • They should continue to preach the Gospel
    • They should make rules that promote development and growth of the church
    • They should call upon those who oppose the gospel to repent and seek forgiveness from God
    • They should forgive those who oppose them overcome hostility
    • They should not fight back against their enemies



    1. (a)
    • Jesus points out that those who were first invited may never enter the kingdom of God because they declined the invitation.
    • Jesus also teaches that to enter the kingdom of God one must give up everything including possessions and family
    • Jesus also shows his concern for the poor and the under privileged
    • Jesus is also encouraging people with resources to share their wealth with the poor
    • Jesus taught that those who humble themselves will be exalted but those who exalted themselves will be humbled
    • He told the people to refrain from taking places  of honour when they are invited to a place, but rather take the lowest place and wait to be exalted



    • Those who received the invitations first will not enter the kingdom of God for they  will make many excuses, so the invitation will be extended to others
    • It warns people against giving excuses why they cannot be part of God’s kingdom
    • So as to teach people not to value earthily possessions over being in the kingdom of God
    • He used the great feast to teach people  about the heavenly banquet and the kind of people  who will be present
    • The kingdom of God is universal and all are welcomed regardless of their historical background
    • Only those who are just will inherit the  kingdom  of God



    • They celebrate the last supper in remembrance of the death of Jesus Christ.
    • It unites Christians in expectations of his second coming
    • It is celebrated in recognition of Jesus’ self- empting   love for humanity
    • It is a thanksgiving meal where Christians renew and rededicate themselves to God
    • The Celebration of the last supper is a constant reminder of Jesus presence among his followers
    • It is a symbol of the heavenly feast which Christians will partake of in God’s kingdom
    • It brings new life to Christians and renews their faith
    • The lord’s supper is an act of repentance through which Christians receive assurance of the forgiveness of sins


    1. (