This module is about different types of dairy products derived from milk. Its treatment and storage process. Such as cheese, yogurt etc.
There are different types of dairy products such as milk, cream, cheese, yogurt etc. They are of different types, and storage process is different. They are as follows:
Milk is white and nutritious liquid food produced by all female mammals for feeding their young ones. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, yaks, goats etc. in Nepal. Milk is classified on the basis of their fat content, various types of milk is as follows:
• Whole Milk: Whole milk has a fat content of 3.9% and is available either in pasteurized or homogenized form.
• Skimmed milk: It has a fat content of 0.1% and is available on pasteurized and UHT form. Semi- skimmed milk: It has a fat content of 1.5 to 1.8% and is available in pasteurized form.
• Evaporated milk: Concentrated and sterilized milk which has a concentration as twice as that of original milk
• Condensed milk: Concentrated as same as evaporated milk and sugar is added for preservation. This milk is not pasteurized.
• Dried milk powder: Milk produced by the complete evaporation of water from the milk by heat, or any other means, to produce solid powder.
Treatment of Milk
Milk treatment is the process of making milk free from harmful bacteria which can cause a health hazard if not treated properly and also gives longer life to the product.
a) Pasteurization: In this treatment, milk is heated at 72 C for 15 to 20 minutes and cooled rapidly to 5 C. The definite cream line is formed in this process. The maximum life of pasteurized milk is up to 48 hours if refrigerated properly.
b) Homogenization: In this treatment, the fat globules are dispersed throughout the milk, and then pasteurized. Milk is forced through a fine aperture which breaks up the fat globules to an even size so that they disperse evenly throughout the milk and therefore do not form a cream line. The maximum life of pasteurized milk is up to 48 hours if refrigerated properly.
c) Ultra-Heat –Treatment (UHT): This is a type of treatment in which the milk is first homogenized and then heated to a temperature of 132 C for at least one second. This treated milk is then packed in a sterilized container. The maximum life of this milk is 6 months.
Storage of milk
Remember the following when storing milk and milk products.
• Fresh milk should be ordered daily.
• Store in the refrigerator below 5 C.
• Milk must be stored in a refrigerator but not more than 3-4 days.
• Milk should not be kept open with other foods as it easily absorbs smells.
• Fresh milk should be kept in a clean container.
• Bottled and tinned milk should be stored in cool, dry, and ventilated rooms.
• Powdered milk should be packed in airtight containers and kept in a dry store.
Cream is the lighter portion of milk which contains all the constituents of milk but in different proportions. The fat content of cream is lighter than that of milk and the water content and the other contents are lower. Cream is separated from the milk and heat treated.
Storage of cream
Remember the following when storing cream and cream products.
• Fresh cream should be kept in the container in which it is delivered.
• Fresh cream must be stored in the refrigerator until required.
• The cream should be kept covered as it easily absorbs smells from other foods, such as onion and fish.
• Tinned cream should be stored in cool, dry, ventilated rooms.
• Frozen cream should only be thawed as required and should be re-frozen.
• Artificial cream should be kept in the refrigerator.
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms.
Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Cheese can be eaten freshly made or mature; some mature for more than three years. There are different types of cheese and these are their characteristics:
• Soft white cheese: This is the simplest type of cheese, usually based on cow’s milk that has not been matured. It is not pressed and the texture is soft and smooth. Examples: Cottage cheese, Petit Suisse, Halloumi, buffalo mozzarella, feta, and ricotta,
• Bloomy-rind cheese: During the cheese-making process, the outside of some soft cheese is coated with Penicillium cardamom. The rind that forms is white, soft and sometimes a little fuzzy, and it is called “bloomy.” This type of cheese first begins to ripen on the outside; the middle of the cheese is the last part to ripen and becomes soft and runny. Examples: Camembert and Brie are the most well-known bloomy-rind cheese.
• Washed-rind cheese: Washed-rind cheese is typically bathed in salted water, wine, brandy or local spirits, according to the traditions of each region. The washing process helps to break down the curd from the outside, and it gradually becomes part of the cheese, rather than just a skin. Examples: Munster, Maroilles, Epoisses, Limburger, and Taleggio.
• Pressed, uncooked cheese: Tomme is the best-known example of this pressed, uncooked family, also called semi-hard cheese. Raw or pasteurized milk is heated to 36°C; the curds are fragmented into very small pieces, the same size as a grain of rice and then put into a cloth-fitted mold to be pressed. Examples: Cheddar, Cantal, Gouda, Reblochon, and Saint-Nectaire.
• Pressed, cooked cheese: These cheese, typically large and very heavy, fall into two distinct subgroups: hard table or grating cheese and mountain-style cheese. Both start from the same process. The curds, after forming, are cut up into smaller pieces, and then further heated to release excess moisture. The end results are some of the world’s most popular cheese. Examples: Comté, Appenzeller, Romano, and Asiago.
• Blue-mould cheese: Blue molds are members of the penicillin family, but unlike white molds, they grow inside a cheese. Examples: Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Stilton, Fourme d’Ambert.
• Natural-rind cheese: These cheese have rinds that are self-formed during the aging process. Generally, no molds or microflora are added, nor is washing used to create the exterior rinds and those that do exhibit molds and microflora get them naturally from the environment. Because most natural-rind cheeses are aged for many weeks, to develop their flavor as well as the rinds, they are typically made from raw milk. Examples: Saint Marcellin, Valenay, Sainte Maure, Pouligny Saint-Pierre.
• Processed cheese: This is a relatively new family of cheese that first appeared during World War I. Processed cheese are made by heating and blending together several natural slices of cheese with an emulsifying agent. Examples: Kernhem, Laughing Cow and Cancoillotte.
Remember the following when handling and Storage of Cheese
• Whole cheese should be stored in their original packaging.
• All other cheese would benefit from being wrapped in wax paper and then aluminum foil.
• Avoid storing cheese in plastic wrap, which prevents it from breathing and alters its rind or interior.
• As a general rule, the packaging must seal the cheese to prevent it from drying out.
• Be sure to remove the cheese from the refrigerator one hour before serving so that it can be eaten at room temperature.
• Vacuum packing is not recommended except for hard cheese, as this process will not damage their shape.
• Freezing is generally not recommended because the cheese’s texture can deteriorate. However, processed cheese and cheese that are used for cooking, such as cheddar or Edam, store very well in the freezer if they are grated. 8 Ideally, depending on the type of cheese, it should be stored in a fresh and wet environment between 2°C and 4°C, with a good ventilation system.
Cheese Suggestions per Meal Period
Breakfast: During breakfast, soft and mild cheese are preferable. Here are some recommended cheese for a breakfast buffet: Soft white cheese like cottage cheese, Petit Suisse, Halloumi, buffalo mozzarella, feta, and ricotta.
Bloomy-rind cheese like Camembert and Brie could preferably be served with Pressed, uncooked cheese like cheddar, Cantal, Gouda, Tomme, Pressed, cooked cheese like Comté, Appenzeller, Gruyère or Natural rind cheese, especially goat cheese like Valençay, Sainte Maure, Pouligny Saint-Pierre.
Lunch and Dinner: During these two meal periods, any kind of cheese can be served. If you plate the cheese, present them according to their different groups.
Yogurt is a cultured milk product made from cow, goat, buffalo, ewes milk. The difference in taste and texture of the products depends on the type of milk used and the activity of the micro-organism involved. A bacterial, “starter culture”, is added to the milk which causes the natural sugar “Lactose” to ferment and produce lactic acid.
All yogurt is live and contains live bacteria which remain dormant when kept as low temperature unless it is clearly stated on the packaging that it has been pasteurized, sterilized or ultra-heat treated. If stored at room temperature or above the dormant bacteria become active again and produce more acid. High acidity kills the bacteria, impairs the flavor and causes the yogurt.
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