Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (V)
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
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AGROFORESTRY
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
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CROP PESTS AND DISEASES
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
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CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
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CROP PRODUCTION II (PLANTING)
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS II (LAND TENURE AND LAND REFORM)
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
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CROP PRODUCTION III NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
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CROP PRODUCTION IV (FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS III (PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
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CROP PRODUCTION V (VEGETABLES)
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH (INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK HEALTH)
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
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FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
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FARM STRUCTURES
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
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FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
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CROP PRODUCTION VI FIELD PRACTICES FOR MAIZE, MILLET, SORGHUM, BEANS AND RICE: HARVESTING OF COTTON PYRETHRUM, SUGAR CANE COFFE AND TEA
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
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FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
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FORAGE CROPS
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION II (NUTRITION)
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH II (LIVESTOCK PARASITES)
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
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SOIL FERTILITY 1 (ORGANIC MANURE)
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION I COMMON LIVESTOCK BREEDS
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (BASIC CONCEPTS AND FARM RECORDS)
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (SELECTION AND BREEDING)
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IV (LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION V (POULTRY)
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
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SOIL FERTILITY II (IN ORGANIC FERTILIZERS)
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
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WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (LIVESTOCK REARING PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
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WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
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AGRICULTURE STUDIES
About Lesson

The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and help the           user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices.

        

  1. State two reasons for seed treatment of tree species before planting
  2. State four ways by which Re-afforestation help in land reclamation
  3. List four advantages of agro-forestry
  4. The illustrations below are techniques of harvesting agroforestry trees. Study them carefully and

            then answer the questions below:-                                                                                         

            (a) Identify the harvesting techniques represented by techniques A and B                          

(b) Give an example of a tree species suitable for technique B and C as a method of harvesting    

  1. State four factors considered when choosing trees for Agroforestry
  2. (a) Five characteristics of trees used in agroforestry are;

(b) The benefits of agroforestry are:

  1. Name four forms of agro- forestry
  2. Give four characteristics that good agro-forestry tree should posses

AGROFORESTRY

  1. two reasons for seed treatment of tree species before planting                                
  • Break dormancy

Control pests and diseases

  1. four ways by which Re-afforestation help in land reclamation
  • Add organic matter from falling leaves
  • Recycles soil erosion
  • Control soil erosion
  • Improve drainage of swampy areas

Play part in hydrological cycle

  1. four advantages of agro forestry
  • Source  of wood fuel (energy)
  • Source of  income
  • Conserve  environment/reduce  soil  erosion/improve water catmint
  • Source of food /fruits
  • Medicine/value
  • Aesthetic value
  • Feed  for  livestock
  • Labour saving 
  1. (a)   A – Pollarding technique (½mk)

                        B – Coppicing (½mk)

(b) An example of a tree species suitable for technique B and C as a method of harvesting     B

(i) Calliandra               calothyrus

(ii) Markahmia            lutea

(iii) Psidum                 guajava

(iv) Croton                  macrostachyus             ( ½ x 1 = ½mk)

            C (i) – Grevillea          robusta

Calliandra     calothyrsus

     – Croton            cacrostachyus  ( ½ x 1= ½mk)

  1. -Deep rooted
  • Nitrogen fixing/ leguminous
  • Fast growing

Good in by product production          

  1. (a) Five characteristics of trees used in agroforestry are;
  • Fast growth rate
  • Nitrogen fixing/leguminous
  • Good in by product use timber, fruits etc
  • Deep rooted
  • Nutritious and palatable
  • easily coppiced
  • Non-competitive ability with main crop (5×1=5mks)

(b) The benefits of agroforestry are:

  • Provides food
  • Source of energy/fuel
  • Fodder for livestock
  • Aesthetic value
  • Provides shelter
  • Income generation
  • Soil and water conservation
  • Balancing of atmospheric gases (8×1=8mks)
  1. four forms of agro- forestry              
  • Alley cropping
  • Woodlots
  • Multi-storey
  • Source of wood fuel
  • Source of income
  • Labour saving
  • Aesthetic value
  • Reduces the carbon dioxide reducing the depletion of Ozone layer

Used as a method of soil and water conservation            

  1. – Border//edge grow
  • Source of wood fuel
  • Source of income
  • Labour saving
  • Aesthetic value
  • Reduces the carbon dioxide reducing the depletion of Ozone layer
  • Used as a method of soil and water conservation
  1. – fast growth

            -Deep rooted

            -Nitrogen fixing

            -Good by-products

            – Friendly to crops/not affent crop

 


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