Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (V)
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
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AGROFORESTRY
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
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CROP PESTS AND DISEASES
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
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CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
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CROP PRODUCTION II (PLANTING)
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS II (LAND TENURE AND LAND REFORM)
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
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CROP PRODUCTION III NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
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CROP PRODUCTION IV (FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS III (PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
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CROP PRODUCTION V (VEGETABLES)
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH (INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK HEALTH)
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
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FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
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FARM STRUCTURES
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
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FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
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CROP PRODUCTION VI FIELD PRACTICES FOR MAIZE, MILLET, SORGHUM, BEANS AND RICE: HARVESTING OF COTTON PYRETHRUM, SUGAR CANE COFFE AND TEA
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
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FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
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FORAGE CROPS
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION II (NUTRITION)
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH II (LIVESTOCK PARASITES)
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
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SOIL FERTILITY 1 (ORGANIC MANURE)
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION I COMMON LIVESTOCK BREEDS
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (BASIC CONCEPTS AND FARM RECORDS)
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (SELECTION AND BREEDING)
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IV (LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION V (POULTRY)
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
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SOIL FERTILITY II (IN ORGANIC FERTILIZERS)
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
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WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (LIVESTOCK REARING PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
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WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
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AGRICULTURE STUDIES
About Lesson

In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture.

-Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c

– Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c.

– Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light

– Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly help and

            motivate the user to comprehend and understand the required concepts:

  1. State two roles of humus in the soil that are beneficial to crops
  2. a) outline five activities that may be  undertaken in organic farming                                  
  3. List four effects of temperature on crop growth
  4. State four ways by which wind affects the growth of crops
  5. Name two factors related to light that affect crop production and distribution in Kenya
  6.  Describe the environmental conditions that may lead to low crop yields                
  7. List three environmental factors that affect crop distribution in Kenya
  8. State one physical characteristic used in classifying soil
  9. Outline four advantages of organic farming
  10. The diagrams below show an experiment carried out by a form 1 class. Study them carefully and

E

 

D

 

            answer questions that follow:

(a) What was the aim of the experiment?                                                                              

(b) What was the observation that form 1 students made at the end of the experiment in

     flasks D and E?                                                                                                                            

            (c) Give the reason for the observation made in flask D                                                       

           

  1. Briefly explain how sub-soil as a horizon in a soil profile can affect soil productivity
  2. (a) What are the three aspects of light that are important to a farmer?

            (b) Mention three ways through which relative humidity affect crop production               

  1. The diagram labeled E and F below illustrates some type of soil structure. Study the diagrams

            carefully and answer the questions that follow:

            (a) Identify the types of soil structure illustrated in diagrams E and F                                 

            (b) Identify the parts labeled (i) and (ii) in diagram F                                                          

            (c) Outline the influence of physical characteristics of soil on its properties                        

  1. State three physical characteristics of soil                                    
  2. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow

  1. a) State merits of horizon A                                                                                                  
  2. b) State distinct features of horizon B                                                                                             
  3. c) What does the term transition zone refer to in soil profile                                                         
  4. i) Name horizon C and state its importance
  5. Outline two ways temperature affects crop production
  6. List four ways by which biological agents can enhance the process of soil formation
  7. List four environmental factors that affect crop production in Kenya
  8. Explain the role played by topography in soil formation  
  9. Mention two importance of parent’s material in soil profile   
  10. Mention four ways of modifying soil temperature in crop production
  11. a) Mention two factors that   affect  selectivity of herbicides                                           
  12. b) Name two farming practice that cause water pollution                                                    
  13. Give four factors that influence soil formation    
  14. State three properties of soil that is influenced by soil texture
  15. Name any three agents of biological weathering

FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE

  1. two roles of humus in the soil that are beneficial to crops
  • Provide nutrients
  • Increase water holding capacity
  • Increase soil temperature

Neutral soil PH          

  1. a) five activities that may be  undertaken in organic farming                                  
  • Mulching
  • Apply manure
  • Use medicinal plants to control parasites and diseases
  • Crop rotation
  • Rear livestock on natural organically grown pasture
  • Physical/ cultural/ biological/ pests, weeds and disease control
  1. four effects of temperature on crop growth

Low temp-slow growth rate

                 -increase incidence of negative infection e.g. CBD

                 -improve quality of some crop

High temp-cause wilting

                 -increase growth rate

                 -improve quality of some crops

                 -increase pest and disease incidences (1/2×4=2mks)

  1. four ways by which wind affects the growth of crops.

            – Causes physical damage to crops.

            – Cause rapid spread of diseases/ pests/ weeds.

            – Can cause water stress as a result of evaporation.

            – Causes stress of crops due to chilling caused cold winds.

            – Encourage transpiration hence water and mineral uptake.

  1. Two factors related to light that affect crop production and distribution in Kenya:-
  • Light intensity
  • Light duration

–     Light wavelength

  1. The environmental conditions that may lead to low crop yields                               
  • Poor soil fertility /infertile soil
  • Damage by hailstorms
  • Less rainfall/unreliable/drought
  • Poor soil type resulting into leaching or water logging
  • Inappropriate soil PH
  • Inappropriate temperature (too low or high)
  • Excessive wind leading to increase in water loss from the soil
  • Extreme relative humidity
  • Extreme of light intensity
  • Topography / some attitudes e.g. very high may limit crop growth ( 1mk x any 7pts = 7mks)
  1. – Rainfall
  • Soil
  • Topography
  • Light
  • Wind
  1. One physical characteristic used in classifying soil is:
  • Colour,
  • Texture,
  • Structure

  1. Four advantages of organic farming
  • Environmental friendly
  • Products do not have organic farming
  • Products do not have organic chemical residue
  • Improve soil structure
  • Replenishes nutrients in the soil as it uses organic manure
  • Enhances soil water retention
  • Provides food for soil microbes
  • Enhances soil water infiltration ( 4x ½ = 2mks)
  1. (a) The aim of the experiment was:- to show presence of living organisms in the soil

            (b) observations were:

  • Flask D  – Limewater turns milky/turbid        (1mk)
  • Flask E – Lime water remains clear   (1mk)

            (c)  The reason for the observation in flask D is:-

Carbon dioxide which turns water milky in flask D would have been produced only during the respiration of living organisms present in fresh soil

  1. – It may have hard pan which interfere with water infiltration
  2. a) – Light duration                                                                                                               
  • Light intensity
  • Light wave length ( ½ x3=1 ½ mks)
  1. b)  Evapotranspiration
  • Presence of pest
  1. a) – E – Single grained structure                                                                                           

          – F – Granular structure                                                                                    (1×1=1 mk)

  1.  b)        i) Humus with clay                                                                                          (1×1=1 mk)
  2. ii) Air space (1×1=1 mk)

             c)-  Colour affects soil texture and hence micro- organisms in the soil Ö

            – Texture – affects drainage, aeration and capillary

            – Structure – affects aeration and root penetration    

  1. three physical characteristics of soil (1 1/2mks)
  • Soil structure
  • Soil texture
  • Soil colour
  1. a) State merits of horizon A
  • source of plant nutrients
  • support/anchor the crops
  • store of water for the crops
  • sources of soil micro organism
  1. b) State distinct features of horizon B
  • deficient of humus(nutrients)
  • contain leached nutrients
  • contains more compact soil particles
  • presence of hard pans in  some soils
  1. c) Transitional zone-this is a zone bordering two adjacent layer of soil profile

i)Weathered rock

      Importance

  • Give rise  to sub soil
  • Source of minerals
  • Determine mineral content of  soil and type  of soil

16                                                                                                                                                       

  • Low temperatures encourages crop diseases such as leaf rust
  • Low temperatures may increase or lower the quality of farm produce
  • High temperatures hastens maturity/ improves the quality/ lower the quality
  • Increases the rate of evapo transpiration which may result loss plant moisture/ leading to wilting of crops
  • Movement of animals in large numbers
  • Decomposition of plant and animal remains by soil micro- organisms
  • Physical breaking of rocks by roots of higher plants
  • Man’s activities e.g. cultivation, mining and road construction
  • Mixing up of soil by animals e.g. earth worms and
  1. – Temperature/ Altitude

– Soil type;

– Prevailing winds;

– Rainfall;        (4x ½ =2mks)

  1. – It influences the movement of the weathered materials hence affecting the depth of soil development;
  2. two importance of parent’s material in soil profile                                        
  • Determine  soil characteristics
  • Determine  soil  depth

Determine  soil  nutrients

  1. four ways of modifying soil temperature in crop production
  • Mulching
  • Pruning
  • Shading of crops
  • Irrigation (4x ½ mks)
  1. a) two factors that   affect  selectivity of herbicides                                                   
  • Stage of plants  growth
  • Plants morphology and anatomy
  • Mode  of action
  • Environmental factors (2×1=2mks)
  1. b) Name two farming practice that cause water pollution                                                                           
  2. four factors that influence soil formation                                                                          
  • Parents  rock  material
  • Climate
  • Topography
  • Biotic/organic/living organism
  1. – Drainage

            -Aeration

            -Water-holding capacity

            -capillary

  1. -large animals e.g. Buffaloes

            -Man activities e.g. farming

            -Root pressure of plants

            -Burrowing animals e.g moles, termites


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