Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
About Lesson

This topic entails the following:

  • Sources of farm power
  • Systems of a tractor
  • Tractor implements, uses and maintenance
  • Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance
  • Tractor servicing and maintenance practices

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and

            help the user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices:

  1. Give four farm operations powered by engines

  1. a) Describe the maintenance practices required on a tractor before it is put to daily use
  2. b) Outline the factors that influence the power output by a draught animal                           

  1. State two uses of gear box in a tractor
  2. State two uses for which wind power is harnessed
  3. Name three implements that are connected to the power take-off shaft
  4. Below is a farm implement, study it keenly and answer the questions that follow:-



            (a) Name the farm implement drawn above

            (b) Identify the parts labelled L and M above                                                                       

            (c) Give the function of the part labeled M                                                                               

            (d) State the field condition under which the implement can work better than the others     (½mk)

  1. (a) Explain the factors that a farmer should consider in ensuring fast and efficient cultivation

                by oxen                                                                                                                              

            (b) Outline the importance of lubrication system in a tractor                                               

            (c) State the daily maintenance and servicing of a tractor                                                    

  1. State the functions of the following parts of power transmission in a tractor:

            (i) Hydraulic system  

             (ii) Draw bar 

            (iii) Propeller shaft    

            (ii) State three sources of tractor hire service                                                                       

  1. (i) What is a tractor hires services (1mk)                                                                          

            (ii) State three sources of tractor hire service (1½mks)   

  1. The diagram below represents an assembled differential of a tractor. Use it to answer the



Propeller shaft








            questions         that follow:-                                                                                                                           



            (a) Name the parts labeled A, B, C and D

            (b) State two functions of differential system of a tractor                                                    

            (c) Give two reasons why wheel skidding of a tractor is not allowed                                  

  1. State four sources of power in the farm

  1. Give the four strokes of a four stroke cycle tractor engine

  1. State four factors which ensure efficient working by oxen in the farm

  1. Mention two sources from which farmers can hire tractors
  2. (a) Below is a diagram of a farm implement

                (i) State the use of the implement shown above                                                                

                (ii) Name the parts labeled A, B, C, and D                                                                       

                (iii) State two methods of increasing the depth of penetration of the implement              

  1. State four ways through which a farmer would ensure maximum power output from

ploughing animals                                                                                                                 

  1. State three advantages of a disc plough over mould board plough              

  1. a) Explain the differences  between petrol and chisel engine                                              
  2. b) Describe components of transmission system of a tractor                                                

  1. Name four systems of a tractor engine

  1. Give one function of the clutch

  1. State two adjustments that should be carried out on a tractor – mounted mould board plough

            in preparation for ploughing                                                                                                  

  1. The diagram below illustrates a farm implement. Study it and answer the questions that follow



  1. a) Identify the implement                                                                                          
  2. b) Name the parts labeled X, Y and Z
  3. c) State three maintenance practices that are carried out on a disc plough

  1. a) Describe the operational differences of a disc plough and mould board plough
  2. b) Explain six marketing problems affecting dairy farming in Kenya
  3. c) State four reasons for culling a boar

  1. Name the role of the following parts of a mould board plough
  2. a) Share .
  3. b) Mould board
  4. c) Land side….

  1. a) State five  maintenance practices of a  mould board plough                                            
  2. b) Explain five structural and functional differences between  the petrol and diesel engines                  c) List five uses of farm fences  

  1. Give two uses of ox-drawn fine harrow

  1. List four care and maintenance of a tractor battery

  1. Study the diagram of a farm implement shown below and answer the questions that follow:

            (a) Identify the farm implement illustrated above                                                                 

            (b) Label parts A, B and C                                                                                                    

            (c)  Outline the functions of  the parts labeled E and F                                                        

             (d) Give two care and maintenance of the above implement                                               

  1. Outline six uses of live fences on the farm

  1. List two possible causes of over heating in a tractor engine

  1. List two events occur during induction stroke in a four stroke engine

  1. i) the diagram below shows a tractor drawn implement.

  1. a) Name the implement
  2. b) Give two uses of the implement above                                                                             
  3. c) State three maintenance practices carried out on the above implement.                   ii) Below is an illustration of a farm equipment. Study it and answer questions that follow

  1. a) Identify the farm equipment illustrated above                                                                                           b) What is the use of the equipment                                                                                                               c) Name the parts labelled W, X  and Y                                                                                                         d) What is the functions of Y on the equipment                                                                    

  1. a) Explain the factors that influence  the power  output of farm animals                             
  2. b) State the importance of farm fences                                                                                  

  1. Study the illustration of a biogas digester plant and answer the questions that follow.

  1. a) Name the major component of biogas that is trapped in part L above
  2. b) Give the name of the material deposited in part labeled M and its use
  3. c) What is the component of K in the biogas production
  4. d) Give three disadvantages of biogas as a source of farm power

  1. Other than hydro-electricity mention two sources of electrical energy which can be available

            for use in the farm                                                                                                                  

  1. a) Describe the maintenance practices required on a tractor before it is put to daily use
  2.  b) Discuss the factors that influence the power output by a draught animal                        


  1. Farm operations powered by Engines.

            – Ploughing and harrowing / land preparations;

            – Transporting farm produce;

            – Spraying of herbicides/ pesticides.

            – Mowing the grass;

            – Lighting of homes;

            – Pumping water for irrigation.

            – Harvesting farm produce;

            – Machine milking.     

  1. (a) Maintenance practices required on a tractor before setting out to work.

            – Check the engine oil daily using dip stick.

            – Check fuel and add if necessary.

            – Nuts and bolts are tightened whenever they loosen.

            – Water level in the radiator be checked and added if necessary.

            – Battery electrolyte be checked daily and if below level, top up be done using distilled water.

            – Greasing be done on the bearings.

            – Tyre pressure be checked and if low, should be added.

            – Fan belt tension be checked.

            – Break shaft bearing  should be greased.

            – Ensure break fluid and clutch fluid levels are maintained.

            – Sediments from the sediment bowls should be removed.

            – Check battery terminals and grease.

            – Oil cleaner be cleaned.                                            

            (b) Factors that influence power output by a draught animal.

            – Age – Mature animals produce more power output than young ones.

            – Breed & Type – Indigenous animals are more hardy than exotic.

            – Training Level – better trained animals have better work output.

            – Body Weight – A draught animal  can pull 10 – 20% of its body not for 6 – 8 hours.

                                        (The bigger the animal, the more output).

            – Harnessing of the animal – well harnesses animal is more efficient at work than poorly

harnessed  work.

  • Condition of working equipment on well maintained equipment have higher work output with the draught animal than poorly maintained ones.
  • Environmental/ Ambient temperature – Cool temperatures lead to higher work output with a draught animal than high temperature.
  • Health Status – A healthy draught animal has higher workout put than a sick animal.

  1. Uses of a gearbox:-
  • Stops the tractor without switching off engine
  • Provides different forward speeds
  • Enables reversing ( ½ x 2pts = 1mk)

  1. Two uses for which wind power is harnessed
  • To pump water
  • To generate electricity
  • For processing /winnowing of grains e.g. millet, rice e.t.c
  1. Name three implements that are connected to the power take-off shaft
  • Sprayers
  • Rotarators
  • Reciprocating (1mk each = 3mks)

  1. (a) Impelement identity – Disc plough

            (b)           L – Furrow wheel                  M – Beam

            (c) – Adds weight

  • Forms attachment of all the other parts ( ½ x 1pt = ½ mk)

            (d) Where there are hidden obstacles e.g. stumps , rocks e.t.c

–    Heavy soils     

  1. (a) Factors that a farmer should consider in ensuring fast and efficient cultivation by oxen
  • A well trained personnel
  • Using well trained animals
  • use of efficient implement
  • Avoiding overworking the animals (allow them to rest
  • Good working environment should be created for the animals
  • Animals should be handled well
  • Feeding the animals properly
  • Using of males animals to do the work
  • Using healthy animals only to do the work (1mk x 8pts = 8mks)

            (b) The importance of lubrication system in a tractor                                                           

  • Prevents rusting i.e when oiling is done
  • It pacts as a cleaning agent as it washes off the dirt, dust
  • Reduces the heat/cooling
  • Increases efficiency of the machine and reduces the rate of wear and tear on moving parts

(c) The daily maintenance and servicing of a tractor                                                                  

  • Checking of maintenance and servicing of a tractor
  • Checking of engine oil by use of dip stick and add if low
  • The level of electrolyte in battery should be checked daily and add if low
  • Inspect the H2O level in radiator and add if low
  • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened
  • Tyre pressure should be checked and added if low
  • Level of fuel should be checked and added if low
  • Removal of large sediments from the sediment bowl
  • Greasing should be done by use of grease on nipples of bearings
  • Fan belt tension should be checked to ensure that it deflects between 1.9–2.5cm when pushed
  • Break shaft should be greased
  • Maintain break fluid level (1mk each for any 9pts= 9mks)

  1. (i) Hydraulic system-raise and  lower  mounted  implements like  plough  

(ii) Draw bar-attachment  of trail  implement

(iii) Propeller shaft-connect gearbox to  differential which has  axle  to  drive wheel

             making tractors  to move backwards or forward.(@ 1mkx3=3mks

  1. (i)Hiring of tractors and  implements  by  farmers  who do not  have  them(correct definition=

            (ii) three sources of tractor hire service          (1½mks)

  • Government tractors  hire service
  • Private  contractors
  • Individual  farmers
  • Cooperative  societies (any 3x ½ =1 ½ mks)

  1. (a) A-ring pinion gear

            B-bevel side gear

            C-wheel exle

            D-drive pinion gear

(b) State two functions of differential system of a tractor      (2mks)

  • Change  direction  of  drive to right angle for power to be transmitted  to rear  wheel
  • Enable  rear  wheel to  travel faster/slower than other when negotiation corner (1×2=2mks)

(c) Give two reasons why wheel skidding of a tractor is not allowed            (1mk)

  • To make tyres  last  longer
  • To make  it easy to control the  tractor
  1. Wind , water, human, animal, biogas, wood fuel, charcoal, kerosene, fossil fuel, petroleum,

ethane (natural gas), hydroelectric power, nuclear , Geothermal, storage battery                

  1. Induction, compression, power exhaust
  2. – Keeping them healthy

– Proper feeding

– Proper handling e.g not over working /not beating them

– Proper training

– Not overloading them

  1. Individual owners

– Government tractor hire service

– Co-operative societies

– Companies

  1. (i) Primary cultivation

A- To link bracket

B _ scrapper

C- Standard/disc hanger

D – Rear finow wheel / thrust wheel  2mks

(ii) Adding weight on beam

  • exerting more hydraulic force
  • – Sharpen the disc blade
  • – Increased space between the disc
  • – Loosen the area of disc contact with the soil
  • Increase the cutting angle
  1. four ways through which a farmer would ensure maximum power output from

            Ploughing animals                                                                                                                 

  • Feeding and watering animals well before working
  • Training animals on  draft techniques
  • Allowing  animals  to rest well after a day work/avoid overworking the animals
  • Keeping the  animals in good  health while working
  1. three advantages of a disc plough over mould board plough                                
  • Tears and wear is less
  • Needs less power to pull
  • It can ride over obstacle
  1. a) the differences  between petrol and diesel engine                                                



i)use diesel as fuel

ii)has injector pump

iii)has no spark  plug

iv)fuel is ignites by  compression

v)air and fuel first meet in cylinder  before ignition

vi)specific fuel consumption is low

vii)higher air compression ratio

viii)air/fuel ratio is not constant

ix)has sediment bowls

x)operation cost is lower

xi)it is  heavy in weight and suited  to heavy machines

xii)produces a lot  of smoke

Use petrol as  fuel

Has carburetor

Has  spark plug for ignition

Fuel ignites by spark  plug

Air and fuel meet in carburetor before  ignition

Specific fuel consumption is high

Lower air compression ratio

Air/fuel ratio is  constant

No sediments bowls

Operation cost  is  high

Operation cost is  high light in weight and suited to light machines

Produce  minimal smoke

  1. b) Describe components of transmission system of a tractor                                                                  
  2. i) Clutch- It disconnects the engine from the rest of the transmission system. It is mounted on the

                   flywheel and made up of pressure plates and clutch plate in the middle. The clutch

                   allows the driver to temporarily interrupt the power flow from the engine to the fear

                     box and shift from one gear to the other

  1. ii) Gear- These are toothed wheels. They provide towards speed or reverse. The set of gears are

                 housed in the gear box.

iii) Differential- it is located between the wheel axial. it enables one wheel to move faster than the

                            other while negotiating a corner

  1. iv) Driving axial- The final drive is brought about by driving axial which gets the power from the


      When the axial rotates they rotate the wheels making the tractor to move either engorged gear

  1. Wheels- Comprises of the tyres, tubes rims nuts and bolts. They must be inflated to the

                        movement  of the tractor

  • Fuel system
  • Electrical system
  • Cooling
  • Lubrication
  • Transmission
  • Ignition
  • Hydraulic

  1. Functions of clutch
  • Connects or disconnects the drive shaft to or from the engine
  • Facilitates smooth and gradual take off
  • Provides power from the engine to the P.T.O (Power Take Off)
  1. 2 adjustment on mould board plough                                                                                    
  • Adjust the plough depth
  • Front furrow depth
  • Lowering/ raising ploughing pitch
  • Front furrow width
  1. a) Disc plough reject disc alone                                                                                           
  2. b) X – Disc scrapper                                Y-  Rear wheel/ furrow wheel

                                    Z – Disc

  1. c) – Replace broken discs
  • Clean plough after use reject wash plough
  • Lubricate hubs and furrow wheel bearing/ moving parts reject movable parts
  • Lighten loose nuts and bolts
  • Store in a cool dry place
  • Apply old engine oil to prevent rusting during long storage/ paint implement
  1. a) Differences operational

Disc plough

Mould board plough

Can be used in fields with obstacles

Cannot be used in fields with obstacles

Ploughs/ cuts at varying depths

Ploughs/ cuts at constant depths or confirm depth

Requires less skills to operate

Requires more skills to operate

Works well in sticky soils

Does not work well in sticky soils

Rotates and not easily broken since rolls over obstacles

Easily broken by obstacles

Requires more harrowing

Requires fewer harrowing

Poor furrow slice inversion

Proper furrow slice inversion

Does not require constant replacement of parts

More power to pull

  1. b)
  • Poor communication network/ poor infrastructures
  • Lack of cooling/ handling facilities/ processing facilities
  • Competition with non- dairy products/ cheap imported dairy products
  • Prevalence of Zoonotic diseases
  • Inefficient/ poor management of marketing society/ dairy boards
  • Late/ non- payment by marketing agents/ exploitation by marketing agents/ middle men
  • Lack of capital to finance marketing activities
  • Price fluctuation due to changes in supply
  • Lack of market information
  1. c) Reasons for culling livestock
  • Old age
  • Poor health
  • Low libido/ infertile
  • Physical deformities
  • Hereditary defects
  • To avoid inbreeding
  1. a) Share-makes a horizontal cutting  on  the furrow slice
  2.  b) Mould board-completes the turning of the furrow  slice
  3.  c) Land side-stabilizes the plough by absorbing the side pressure ( ½ x3=1 ½ mks)
  4. a) five  maintenance practice of a  mould board plough                                            
  • Lubricate  the moving pests
  • Sharpen blunt  share
  • Tighten bolts and   nuts
  • Clean  the  plough after  use
  • Coat  the unpainted  parts with old engine oil before any storage
  • Replace worn out parts (1×5=5mks)
  1.  b) five  structural   and functional differences between  the petrol and diesel engines            

Petrol engine

Diesel engine

i)has a carburetor

ii)fuel and air mixed in the carburetor

iii)fuel ignited by an electric spark

iv)produces little smoke

v)is  light  in weight

i)Has  an  injector pump

ii)Fuel and air  mixed  within  the cylinder

iii)fuel ignited by  compression of air and  fuel

mixture  in the cylinder

iv)produces  a lot of  smoke

v)relatively  heavy

  1.  c) List five uses of farm fences                                                                                                                 
  • keep of wild  life ,predation and  intruders
  • demarcates boundaries
  • separate crop field from pasture land
  • divide pasture land into  paddock
  • control  movement of  animals and people within  the farm and  prevent formation of unnecessary pests
  • control disease  and parasites helps in isolate  sick animals
  • helps in  controlling breeding
  • provide security
  • act as  wind break  (1×5=5mks)
  1. Uses of ox-dram tine harrows
  • Leveling of seed bed
  • Breaking large soils clod
  • Mixing up soil with organic matter
  • Destroy weeds
  • Cover seeds

     Collecting trash     

  1. Care and maintenance of tractor battery
  • Maintain correct level of electrolyse by topping up with distilled water
  • Scrap corroded terminals and smear with grease
  • Fix battery tightly in box to avoid spillage and damage
  • Charge regularly and periodically
  • Under storage empty battery and keep it upside down
  • Generator belt should always be functioned to charge
  1. a) moulboard
  2. b) A – Shaire                   B- Mouldboard                       C- Disc coulter
  3. c) E- Stabilize the plough

                           – absorb side thrust by pressing against furrow wall

                        F- Scrapes of mind from disk coulter

  1. d) Care and maintenance
  • Lubrication of moving parts
  • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened
  • Clean after use/ remove trash and wet soil
  • For long shortage paint with old engine to prevent
  • Replace/ repair worn out parts
  1. Six uses of live fences
  • Thorn species prevent wild animals and other invaders into the farm
  • Tall varieties act as wind breakers
  • Add aesthetic value to the homestead
  • Roots holds soil firmly controlling soil erosion
  • Species such as lantana canara can be used to feed livestock
  • Provide shade to livestock and man
  • Trimmed branches can be used as organic manure, wood fuel
  • Some species have medicinal value
  1. two possible causes of over heating in a tractor engine
  • Slack fan belt
  • Low  oil  level

Low water level in radiator 

  • Deformed / broken yolk.
  1. two events occur during induction stroke in a four stroke engine. (1mk)
  • Piston moves down from TDC
  • Exhaust valve is closed
  • Inlet valve is open
  • Air / fuel mixture get into combustion chamber
  • Piston reaches BDC. (4x ½ = 2mks)
  1. i) a)    Spike tooth harrow (1×1 =1 m k)
  2. b) two uses of the implement above.(2mks)
  • Level seed bed
  • Break soil clods
  • Stir soil
  • Destroy weeds
  • Incorporate fertilizer in the soil
  • Removing trash from the field. (2×1 = 2)
  1. c) three maintenance practices carried out on the above implement.(3mk)
  • Replace worn out parts
  • Clean after work
  • Tighten loose bolts and nuts
  • Oil unpainted parts for storage. (3×1 = 3mks)
  1. ii) a) Bucket pump /stir – up pump (1×1 = 1mk)
  2.         b) Spraying acaricide on livestock (1×1 =1mk)
  3.        c) W – Nozzle                  X – Trigger                  Y –  Pail /bucket
  4. d) For holding acaricide solution during spraying. (1×1 = 1)
  5. a) the factors that influence  the power  output of farm animals (8mks)                  
  • Training
  • Level  of  nutrition
  • Harnessing  animals properly
  • Body  weight
  • Age-mature ones produce  more  power than young
  • Handling  of  animals
  1. b) State the importance of farm fences (12mks)
  • demarcates farm land from that  of  neighbours
  • keeps  wild  animals  and other intruders from entering  the  farm
  • separates crop field  from pastures facilitating mixed  cropping
  • used  to divide  pastures into paddocks facilitating controlled  grazing
  • controls  movement  of  animals  and people preventing  formation of  unnecessary paths  in the  farm
  • helps  control spread of  diseases  and  parasites in the  farm by keeping  wild animals  away
  • helps  isolate sick animals from the rest of the herd preventing  the  spread of diseases
  • enables farmer to control breeding rearing  different  animals in different  paddocks
  • provide security  to the homestead
  • they have  aesthetic value
  • live  fences  act as  animal feeds
  • live  fences  act  as wind breakers (1×12=12mks)
  1. (a) Methane

            (b) slurry

            (c) Fresh mixture of waste material

            (d) Initial capital investment is high hence very expensive

            Requires management skills that may not be available & it available expensive

            Requires large number of farm animals to produce animal waste.

35        . – Solar panels

            – Petrol and diesel generators

            – wind mills

            – steam production form boilers using organic or inorganic

  1. (a) Check engine oil, fuel, water level, electronic in the battery

            -Tighten nuts and bolts

            -Apply grease

            -Remove large sediments from sediment bowl

            -Check the tyre pressure and inflated or deflated appropriately

            -Fan belt tension should be checked to ensure it defients between 1.9cm to 2.5cm when punched

            -Grease the brake shaft and maintain brake fluid level

            (b) -Health of animal

                -Level of feeding

                -Animal slpeciesa

               -Care and handling

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