Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (V)
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
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AGROFORESTRY
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
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CROP PESTS AND DISEASES
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
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CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
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CROP PRODUCTION II (PLANTING)
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS II (LAND TENURE AND LAND REFORM)
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
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CROP PRODUCTION III NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
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CROP PRODUCTION IV (FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS III (PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
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CROP PRODUCTION V (VEGETABLES)
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH (INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK HEALTH)
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
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FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE AGRICULTURE
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
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FARM STRUCTURES
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
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FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
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CROP PRODUCTION VI FIELD PRACTICES FOR MAIZE, MILLET, SORGHUM, BEANS AND RICE: HARVESTING OF COTTON PYRETHRUM, SUGAR CANE COFFE AND TEA
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
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FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
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FORAGE CROPS
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION II (NUTRITION)
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH II (LIVESTOCK PARASITES)
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
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SOIL FERTILITY 1 (ORGANIC MANURE)
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION I COMMON LIVESTOCK BREEDS
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
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AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS (BASIC CONCEPTS AND FARM RECORDS)
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (SELECTION AND BREEDING)
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IV (LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT PRACTICES
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION V (POULTRY)
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
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SOIL FERTILITY II (IN ORGANIC FERTILIZERS)
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
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WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III (LIVESTOCK REARING PRACTICES)
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
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WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
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AGRICULTURE STUDIES
About Lesson

This topic entails the following:

  • Description of reproduction
  • Description of reproduction systems
  • Selection f breeding stock
  • Description of breeding system.
  • Identification of livestock on heat
  • Description of methods used in serving livestock.

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and help the             user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices.

  1. State four ways of minimizing disowning of lambs by ewes
  2. State the gestation period of the following farm animals
  3.  i) Pigs
  4. ii) Rabbits
  5. i) What is selection in live stock production
  6. ii) State three methods used in selection of livestock                                                           
  7. Give four signs of heat observed on female rabbit
  8. Name four meat breeds of rabbits        
  9. State four reasons for cutting a breeding boar                                            
  10. List the methods of selection in livestock
  11. Define the following terms as used in livestock breeding
  12. i) Heterosis
  13. ii) Epistasis
  14. State three signs of heat in Does (Female Rabbits)
  15. Give the gestation period of the following:
  16. i) Cow
  17. ii) Sow
  18. State three disadvantages of natural methods of mating in cattle breeding            
  19. a) Explain the advantage of battery cage system of rearing layers         
  20. b) Outline ten factors considered when selecting dairy cattle for breeding                          
  21. What is upgrading as used in livestock production?            
  22. Define the word breech of birth as used in livestock production            
  23. What does the term “drift lambing’ mean in livestock production?

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION III

(SELECTION AND BREEDING)

  • Steaming up of ewes to have milk to be suckled
  • Use of lambing pens
  • Ewes as made to recognize lambs after lambs
  • Blind folding ewes to activate maternal instinct
  • Attend/ treat inflamed udders/ painful
  • Pig 112 – 15 days

Rabbits 28 – 32 days 

3          (i) Selection.                                                                                                                           

            – It is the process of allowing certain animals to be the parents of the future generations while

culling  others;

(ii) Methods used in selection.

  • Mass selection;
  • Progeny testing;
  • Contemporary comparison;

  1. – Restless.

            – Frequent urination.

            – Swollen vulva.

            – The doe throws itself on its side.

            – She (does rubs herself against the wall or any other solid object.

            – The doe tries to contact other rabbits in the next hutch by peeping through the cage walls.

  1. four meat breeds of rabbits   
  • Flemish giant
  • California white
  • New Zealand white
  • Ear lop
  • chinchilla

  1. four reasons for cutting a breeding boar
  • Bareness/loss of Libido
  • Loss of sight, limb, cannot mate
  • Old age
  • Perpetual sickness/contract
  • Reproductive diseases
  • Aggressiveness/wildness

  1. – Mass
  • Progerry testing
  • Comparison

  1. (i) Heterosis- Increased vigour/ performance resulting from mating two superior unrelated Breeds

(ii) Epitasis- Is a combination of genes that individually could have been both undesirable

                    or inferior                                                                                                                       

  • Heat signs in rabbits (doe)
  • The doe throws itself on its sides
  • She rubs herself against walls or solid objects
  • Tries to contact other rabbits in the next hutch (peeping)
  • Restlessness
  • Swollen vulva
  • Frequent urination
  1. Gestation periods of :- Cow 270 – 285 days

                                                Sow – 113 117 days

  1. Disadvantages of natural mating
  • A lot of semen is wasted
  • High chances of inbreeding
  • Large males can injure small females
  • Expensive to transport bull over long distance
  • May need extra pasture, extra cost

  1. a) the advantage of battery cage system of rearing layers                                          
  • Higher  egg production due  to  less  energy wastage  by  birds
  • Accurate egg production records re kept
  • Cannibalism and egg  eating are  controlled
  • Eggs are clean
  • Allows for  mechanization
  • Birds  do not  contaminate food  and water
  • Makes handling  easy as birds  are restricted  within small areas
  • Discourages broodiness
  • Increases the sticking rate
  • Sick  birds can easily  be isolated
  • The  wire floor prevails re-infection on the parasites, worms  and coccidiosi
  • There  is no bully during feedings
  • There is low labour requirement (1×10=10mks)
  1. b) Outline ten factors considered when selecting dairy cattle for breeding                                             
  • age-young animals  have  longer  productive live and are more productive and

             Economical to keep than old animals

  • level of  performance-animals  with highest production level  be kept
  • health-consider  animals which are less susceptive to  disease
  • body  confirmation  go  for ones well people dairy characteristics
  • temperature/behaviour select only decline animals which  are easy to  handle mothering ability
  • adaptable under suitability  to  the environment
  • prolycacy  ability to give  built to  many  off springs at a time
  • physical defects
  • quality of products  (1×10=10mks)

  1. A type  of mating  where  the female of  low grade  is  mated  to a pure  bred sire of

            superior  quality (1mk)


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