Course Content
Agriculture Economics iv
• Importance of farm accounts • Financial documents and their uses • Analysis of financial statements • Books of accounts and their uses.
• Market and marketing • Types of markets • Supply and demand • Marketing functions • Problems of marketing • Agricultural organizations
This topic entails the following: • Definition of agro forestry • Importance of agro forestry • Forms of agro forestry • Importance of trees • Selection f trees to plant • Routine management practices on trees • Methods of tree harvesting.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a pest and a disease • Main cause of crop diseases • Description of harmful effects of crop pests and diseases • Identification of crop pests and diseases • Control measures of crops pests and diseases
The following is the summary- Land preparation entails the following farming practices. - Land clearing or bush clearing tools, chemicals and equipment used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Primary cultivation, tools and equipment as machines used. - Secondary cultivation, tools and equipment used. - Tertiary operations e.g. ridging, rolling and leveling. - Sub-soiling, tools used and reasons for the same. - Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure
This topic entails the following: • Correct planting materials for various crops • Selection and preparation of planting materials • Determination of optimum time of planting • Factors which determine planting depth • Planting procedure for different crops • Factors which determine seed rate, spacing and plant population. • Calculation of plant population • Economic value of land.
• Definition of land tenure. • Description of tenure systems. • Descriptions of land reforms
This topic entails the following: • A nursery bed • A nursery bed and a seed bed • Reasons of establishing nursery bed • Suitable site for nursery bed • Nursery bed preparation • Nursery bed management practices • Transplanting seedling crops from nursery bed • Budding a seedling • Grafting a seedling • Reasons for budding, grafting and layering • Tissue culture • Damage caused by animals to a seedling and prevention
This topic entails the following: • Crop rotation • Reasons for crop rotations • Crop rotation programme • Terms used in crop farming • Mulching • Reasons for various field management practices • Correct stage for harvesting crops • Harvesting practices of various crops.
This topic entails the following: • Parameter of national development • Factors of production • Law of diminishing returns • Farm planning and budgeting • Agricultural services • Risks and uncertainities • How to adjust to risks and uncertainities.
This topic entails the following: • Growing or production of a vegetable crop form nursery establishment to harvesting • Keep records of crop production. • Market vegetable crop produce • Give reasons or importance of growing vegetable crops. • The vegetable crops include the following: Tomatoes, cabbages, onions, carots, kales.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of Health and disease. • Signs of sickness in animals livestock diseases • Categories of livestock diseases • Reasons for keeping livestock in good health • Disease control practices • Appropriate methods of handling livestock.
In this topic, the following factors influence agriculture. -Human factors e.g. -level of education, -Health HIV/AIDS, -Economic status of the farmer e.t.c - Biotic factors e.g. pests, parasites, decomposers, pathogens, pollinators, predators e.t.c. - Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, wind and relative humidity, light - Edaplus factors e.g. type of soils, soil profile, soil structure, soil texture, soil chemical properties.
This topic entails the following: • Description of parts of a building • Identification of materials for construction • Description of various farm structures and their uses • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.
This topic entails the following: - Sources of farm power - Systems of a tractor - Tractor implements, uses and maintenance - Animal drawn implements uses and maintenance - Tractor servicing and maintenance practices
This topic entails the following: • Description of management practices of the food crops from planting to harvesting and marketing. • Economic value of food crops and industrial crops
There are five categories of farm tools and equipment namely: - Garden tools and equipment e.g. pangas, jembe, pick axe, spade e.t.c. - Workshop tools and equipment e.g. saws, hammers, planes, chisels e.t.c - Livestock production tools and equipment e.g. milking stool, strip cup, milk churn etc. - Masonry tools and equipment e.g. wood float, spirit level, plumb bob e.t.c - Plumbing tools e.g. pipe wrench spanner, stock and die e.t.c
This topic entails the following: • Definition and classification of pasture crops. • Identification of pasture corps • Description of ecological requirements of forage crops • Description of the establishment of pasture and fodder crops • Description of forage utilization and conservation.
This topic entails the following:- - Definition of agriculture - Main branches of agriculture - Farming systems - Farming methods - Role of agriculture to Kenya’s economy - Varied opportunities in agriculture.
This topic entails the following: • Identification and classification of livestock feeds. • Digestion and digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry • Definition of terms used to express field values • Preparation of balanced ration for various livestock • Functions and deficiency symptoms of various nutritional elements.
This topic entails the following: • Host-parasite relationships • Effects of parasites on livestock • Life cycle of parasites • Methods of parasite control in livestock • Identify different parasites
This topic entails the following: • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases. • Signs of each stated livestock disease • Stating predisposing factors where applicable • Control measures of livestock disease
This topic entails the following: • Definition of soil erosion • Explanation of various factors which influence erosion. • Agents of erosion • Description various methods of erosion • Description of various methods of erosion control • Description of micro-catchments and then uses.
This topic entails the following: - Characteristics of a fertile soil - How soil loses soil fertility - Soil fertility maintenance - Reasons of adding organic matter to soil - Disadvantages of organic manure - Types of organic manure i.e green manure, farm yard manure and compost measure.
This topic entails the following: • Reasons of keeping livestock • Parts of a cow • Characteristics of indigenous and exotic cattle breeds • Dairy cattle breeds • Beef cattle breeds • Dual purpose cattle breeds • Pig breeds • Sheep breeds • Goat breeds • Rabbit breeds • Camel breeds
This topic entails the following - Definition of scarcity, preference and classic, opportunity cot as used in agriculture production. - Uses of farm records - Types of farm records i.e production records, filed operation records, breeding records, feeding records, health, labour records and master roll.
This topic entails the following: • Description of reproduction • Description of reproduction systems • Selection f breeding stock • Description of breeding system. • Identification of livestock on heat • Description of methods used in serving livestock.
This topic entails the following: • Description of livestock rearing practices • Carrying out livestock rearing practices • Livestock routine management practices i.e. feeding, de-beaking e.t.c.
This topic entails the following: • Identification of parts of an egg. • Selection of eggs for incubation • Identification of suitable sources for chicks. • Descriptions of broodiness • Description of condition for incubation • Description of rearing systems • Categories of poultry feds according to age-of birds • Stating causes of stress and vices in poultry and control measures. • Marketing of eggs and poultry meat. • Selection, sorting and grading of eggs.
This topic entails the following; • Essentials elements required by cops • Classification of essential elements • Role o micro-nutrients • Deficiency symptoms of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. • Identification and classification of fertilizers. • Soil sampling and testing methods of fertilizer application. • Effect of soil acidity/alkalinity air crops • Fertilizer rate calculations
This topic entails the following: - Hydrological cycle - Sources of water on the farm - Water collection and storage - Pumps and pumping of water - Types water pipes - Water treatment - Uses of eater of the farm. - Types of irrigation advantages and disadvantages. - Importance and methods of drainages - Water pollution causes and prevention.
This topic entails the following: • Raising young stock • Milk and milk components • Milk secretion and milk let-down • Correct milking techniques • Marketing of milk and beef.
This topic entails the following: • Definition of a weed • Identification of weeds • Classification o weeds • Competitive ability of weeds • Description of weed control methods • Harmful effects of weeds
About Lesson

This topic entails the following:

  • Description of parts of a building
  • Identification of materials for construction
  • Description of various farm structures and their uses
  • Construction and maintenance of farm structures.

            The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly motivate and help the             user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and practices:

  1. Mention four disadvantages of using steel materials for construction of farm structures
  2. Give two reasons for placing a polythene sheet on a foundation of farm buildings
  3. What is “calf crop” in beef production?
  4. a) Outline the procedure  in construction of a  barbed wire  fence                                      
  5. b) List any four wood preservatives                                                                                     
  6. c) Give four factors that will determine the choice of farm building materials                    
  7. i) Give four factors considered when citing a fish pond
  8. ii) Give four features of a good laying nest                                                                          

6          State two uses of a footbath in cattle dip                                                                               

7          a) What is a green house                                                                                                        

  1. b) Name four materials used in green house construction                                                    
  2. c) Give four maintenance practices carried out on a green house                                        
  3. d) Explain the importance of maintaining farm structures                                                    

8          Give two disadvantages of a barbed wire fence when used in paddocking                          

9          The diagram below illustrates a cross-section of a fish pond. Study it carefully and answer the

            questions that follow:-                                                                                                                       







            (a) Identify the parts marked A, B, C and C                                                                         

(b) On the diagram the points marked X, Y and Z are possible sites where fish feeding

      can be done.  Which is the most appropriate point for feeding?                                                 

            (c) Give two reasons why the floor of the pond should be covered with lime 14days before

                 filling it   with water                                                                                                                                       (d) Why should part marked B be screened?                                                                         

            (e) State three maintenance practices carried out on the structure                                       

  1. Study the farm structure below illustrating a pass:-

            (a) Identify the type of pass illustrated above                                                                       

            (b) Distinguish between a pass and a gate     

            (c) Name one type of live fence                                                                                                        

11        State four requirements of a good maize store                                                                     

12        State three factors that determine the depth and size of foundation in a farm building       

13        (a) Explain the uses of  various hand tools in the construction of a poultry house               

            (b) Describe the procedure of erecting wooden rail fence                                                    

            (c) Explain various factors considered when choosing the construction materials for farm building

14        State four features of a good calf pen                                                                                   

15        State four uses of a fence                                                                                                      

16        Below is a diagram of a cross section of a farm structure. Study it carefully and answer the

            following questions.


                 (i) Identify the labeled parts A, B, and C                                                                         

                 (ii) What is the importance of the part labeled B to the structure                                    

            (b) (i) When making concrete blocks the ratio 1:3:5 may be used. What do these figures


                 (ii) In a concrete mixture 1:3:5, twenty four cubic metres of sand were recommended to be

                         used in putting up of a foundation of a building. Find the volume of the other two           

17        (a) Explain the maintenance practices of a fish pond                                               

            (b) Give four ways of controlling fish predators in a fish pond                                           

18        Mention four reasons of treating timber before roofing farm buildings                               

19        List four uses of crushing in the farm                                                                                   

20        a) Define  the term fence                                                                                                       

  1. b) List various types of fences                                                                                               
  2. c) Describe advantages of fences                                                                                          

21        Study the illustration of a farm structure below and answer the questions that follow        


  1. i) Name the parts labeled                                                                                                       
  2. ii) State the function of the parts labeled

            iii) Name two chemicals preservatives used to treat the wooden parts of the structure against

                insects and fungal damage                                                                                                   

  1. Below is a diagram of a fish pond, study it and answer the questions that follow


  1. i) Label the parts marked K and L                                                                                        
  2. ii) Give a reason why part M is usually deeper than the rest of the pond

            iii) State three maintenance practices carried out in the pond                                             

  1. a) Explain five factors to consider when siting a fish pond
  2. b) Explain the measures used to control livestock diseases
  3. State four factors which influence the selection of materials for constructing a diary shed
  4. a)The illustration below shows a method  of  identifying pigs, study  the diagram  and answer the questions  that follow:-                                                                                                          

  1. i) On the diagram A provided below, draw the mark to indicate a pig number 147,

   using the procedure of ear-notching in diagram



  1. ii) What is the recommended stage of growth in pigs at which the ear-notching should be

      carried out?      

iii) State any three reasons why weight is an important routine management practice in pig   


  1. b) Below are illustrations showing the various parts of the Kenya top bar hive. Use the illustration

    to answer the question that follow







  1. i) label the parts B ,C and D                                                                                                                          
  2. ii) How can a farmer attract bees to colonize a new hive?

            iii) Outline the procedure of opening the hive to harvest honey                                                                  

  1. a) State five  maintenance practices of a  mould board plough                                            
  2. b) Explain five structural and functional differences between  the petrol and diesel engines                  c) List five uses of farm fences  
  3. State four uses of farm buildings
  4. List four structural requirements for proper housing of farm animal to maintain good health
  5. The diagram below is part of a farm structure. Study it and then answer the questions that follow:


            (a) Name part of structure represented above                                                                        

            (b) Identify parts labelled P, Q, R, and S                                                                              

             (c) Give the functions of the part labeled P and S                                                                

  1. The diagram below shows an activity of processing a farm product. Study it and answer the

            questions that follow:


            (a) Name the product being processed                                                                                  

            (b) Identify the method used in processing the product names in the diagram                     

            (c)  Outline the procedure used when harvesting the product named in the diagram                       

            (d) List two factors that affect quality of the product processed in the diagram                   

  1. Study the diagram of a sheep shown below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

            (i) What operation is usually carried out on the part labelled A?                                         

            (ii) Give two reasons for carrying out the operation in (i) above                                          

            (iii) At what age should the above operation be carried out?                                                

            (v) Name routine management practice carried out on the part labelked B                          

31        (a) Describe five parts of a plunge dip                                                                                  

            (b) Outline six uses of live fences on the farm                                                                      

            (c) Outline four factors that influence power output of drought animals                             

  1. a) Explain the factors a farmer needs to consider before siting a farm structure on his farm
  2.  b) Outline the desirable features of a good grain store                                                         
  3. c) Describe the uses of farm fences in promotion of agriculture                                                      
  4. Name any two pests that attack timber used for construction in the farms
  5. State three factors that may lead to dip wash being exhausted or weakened while in the

            dip tank                                                                                                                     


  • Steel is expensive
  • Require high skilled labour
  • Heavy and difficult to transport
  • Rusts easily

Low workability

  • To prevent termites from rising up to the wall
  • To reduce moisture rising up the wall
  1. A group of calves kept according to age

  1. a) Procedure in construction of a barbed wire fence
  • Slash/ clear vegetation around fence line 2 m wide
  • Measure and mark spots for holes using pegs
  • Dig holes 60cm – 90cm deep depending areas where the poles are to be placed
  • Assemble poles and other requirement materials
  • Drop pole and struts at respective points
  • Prepare concrete mixture
  • Erect poles in pole holes
  • Align the poles and put concrete using spade or soil
  • Compact the concrete in holes
  • Allow to settle for a few days while curing
  • Put barbed wire around using appropriate tools
  • Tighten the wire using wire strainer
  • Mail barbed wire using fencing staple at required distance
  • Put droppers along the fence as required             12×1=12 mks 
  1. b) Wood preservatives
  • Creosote
  • Old engine oil
  • Paint/ far/ tanesc
  • Copper sulphate
  • Sodium dichromate
  • Arsenic pentoxide
  • Pentachloroplenol
  • Triputyl tin oxide 4×1=4 mks
  1. c) Choice of farm building materials
  • Cost of materials
  • Availability/ strength of the material
  • Workability

Type of enterprise                        

  1. (i) Factors considered when sitting a fish pond.

            – Reliable source of water/ water source;

            – Soil type / poorly drained clay soil the best;

            – Topography / gently sloping;

            – Security/ be secure from thieves / predators;

            – Water quality / free of pollutants;

            – Machine milking;                                                                                         

            (ii) Features of a laying nest.

  • Dimly lit; dark;
  • Spacious / large enough to accommodate bird comfortably;
  • Dry clean beddings;
  • Have lockable doors;
  • Kept in secluded parts of the house;
  • Have slanting roofs to prevent birds from perching on;
  1. Uses of footbath in cattle dip.

            – To wash the foot off mud;

            – Contains chemicals for controlling foot rot; CUSO4 (blue vitriol/ formalin solution;)

  1. (a) – A green house is a farm structure made up of glass or translucent material as wall and

                  roof to  enhance and achieve optimum condition for valuable horticultural crop production.

            (b) Material used in green house construction.

            – Galvanizing iron.

            – Aluminium or wooden frame.

            – Glass or clear polythene sheet.

            – Fibre glass or reinforced panels.                                                                              

            (c) Maintenance practices on green house.

            – Dirty polythene sheet should be clear.

            – Blocked systems should be repaired and cleared.

            – Torn polythene material should be replaced.

            – Should be fenced for security.                                                                                 

            (d)  Importance of maintaining farm structures.

            – Last longer/ enhance durability.

            – Reduce replacement cost.

            – Protect livestock from predator.

            – Prevent straying animals.

            – To prevent diseases brought by cold winds.

            – Make them effective in their use.                            

  1. Disadvantages of barbed wire fence in paddocking:-
  • Can remove wool from sheep
  • Barbs can injure the animals

–    Smaller animals can pass through if the wire strands are widely spread

  1. (a)        A .Inlet

            B – Spillway/ overflow.

            C –  Drain pipe/outlet              (1 ½ mk each = 1 ½  mks)

            (b) The most appropriate part for feeding is part X   (1mk)

            (c) Two reasons why the floor of the pond should be covered with lime                  

  • Facilitate the work of fertilizer in the pond
  • Maintain PH of pond water ( ½  mk each 2pts = 1mk)

            (d) Why should part marked B be screened?                                                                         

  • Prevent escape of fish
  • Prevent entry f foreign /unwanted organisms ( ½ x 1pt = ½mk)

            (e) three maintenance practices carried out on the structure                                     

  • Removing weeds
  • Unblocking inlet and outlets
  • Maintaining same water level
  • repairing leakages on walls, floor e.t.c

–    Draining of water during harvesting  

  1. (a)Stille ( ½ mk x 1pt =  ½ mk)

            (b) A pass allows only human passage while gate allows for both human and livestock in and

                  out of the farm      ( ½mk mark as a whole)

            (c) One type of live fence                                                                                                      

  • Electric

–    Hedges

  1. four requirements of a good maize store
  • Leak proof
  • Rat proof
  • Properly ventilated
  • Easy to clean
  • Raised off the ground properly drained
  • easy to load and unload/spacious (any 4x ½ =2mks)

  1. three factors that determine the depth and size of foundation in a farm building
  • Function  of  building
  • Soil type
  • Soil  depth
  • Drainage of area (any 3x ½ =1 ½ mks)

  1. (a) the uses of various hand tools in the construction of a poultry house    
  • Jembe- levelling the  ground
  • Spade-scooping soil
  • Tape-measuring distance
  • Wheel barrow-carrying small load
  • Spirit level-checking whether surface  is vertical or  horizontal
  • Rip-saw/tenor saw-cutting  timber
  • Hand drill/bit brace-boring in  wood
  • Claw hammer-driving  in/hitting and removing nails
  • G-clamp-holding  objects /wood  when  joining
  • Tin-snip-cutting  iron  sheet
  • Chisel
  • Mallet (any 10×1=10mks)

 (b) the procedure of erecting wooden rail fence(7mks)

  • Locate  the area  to  be fenced off
  • Determine the amount of  material  needed
  • Treat  the  post
  • Clear the area
  • Measure  the  distance  3-4m  apart and  place  pegs
  • Dig  holes  up to 60cm deep
  • Put fencing  post  in hole and  reinforce with  concrete
  • Place 3-4 horizontal rails
  • Space at  about 125mm,175mm, 225mm  and 275mm from  ground
  • Fixed  them  onto  post using nail (10x1pt=10mks)

 (c) factors considered when choosing the construction materials for farm building

  • Purpose  of building determine  strength and durability of material
  • Availability of capital; depends  on  ability to purchase
  • Aesthetic aspect:-determine by economic status of farmers
  • Availability of material: easily obtained
  • Durability: good quality .not be  repaired  often
  • Resistant to extreme weather  condition
  • Safely  of  farm animals and farmer:- not have side  effects/workability
  • Suitability of the  material.(any5pointsx2mks=10mks)

  1. – Have adequate space

– single housing ( 1caf per pen)

– Properly lit

– Have proper drainage

-Well ventilated

– Drought free

  1. – Demarcates boundaries of farms

– Prevents intruders, wild animals, thieves in the farms

– Facilitate mixed farming

– Enhance paddocking of farm for effective rotational grazing

– Control unnecessary movement in the farm

– Control inbreeding

– Isolate sick animal

  1. (a) (i) A – Wall plate/team beam/lintel                                                                                

B – Damp proof coarse

C- Hard core

              (ii) – Prevents termite invasion

            – Prevents water capillarity /dampness

(b) (i) 1 bag of cement

            3 parts/wheel barrows of sand

            5 parts /wheel barrows of ballasts or gravel

(ii) Sand

            3 parts of sand = 24m3

            1 bag = 1×24 = 8m3



             parts = 24m3

            5 parts = 5×24 = 40m3 (½mk)


  1. (a) Maintenance of the fish pond

– Protection of the pond – regularly check pond walls, plant grass on the walls to help control soil erosion

– Pond bottom repair- check water seepage problems regularly, It can be done introducing an even layer of clay to seal off the bottom of pond properly

– Removal of weeds; -regularly remove all weeds that grow on the walls and around the ponds

– Maintenance of appropriate water level: Maintain the same level of water in the pond by use of inlet and outlets

– Inspection of pond: – Regularly check for cracks in the walls and seal immediately

– Cleaning the pond- once n a while to drain out the pond water, remove all stones, silt or roots that may have settled at the pond bottom, lime the water before refilling it with water

– removal of organic materials – any vegetative matter or food remains should be removed as soon as they are noticed to ensure they do not start decomposing

– Repair fence around the pond- In case of worn out posts, repair/replace immediately

(b) Ways of controlling of fish predators in a fish pond

– Put a strong wire fence around the pond

– Provide a wire screen above the pond to guard against prevatory birds

– A sire screen is put in the inlet, outlet and in the spillway

– Scare away in the binds as necessary

            – occasionally drain the ponds to kill all unwanted predatora in the pond bottom

  1. four reasons of treating timber before roofing farm buildings
  • Prevent attack from insects
  • Prevent attack from fungi (rotting)
  • Resist weather condition:-extreme temperature
  • Resist water penetration
  • To harden woo-make it durable and more strong
  • To avoid warping

  1. four uses of crushing in the farm                                                                                          
  • Spraying livestock  against external parasites
  • Identifying animals by use  of  such   methods as branding ,ear-tagging and ear notching
  • Vaccination
  • Administering prophylactic drugs to the animals
  • Treating sick animals
  • Dehorning
  • Pregnancy test
  • Artificial insemination
  • Taking  body temperature
  • Hoof trimming
  • Milking

  1. a) A fence is a structure that encloses a designated area and forms a physical barrier for

   animals and human

  1. b) List various types of fences                                                                                               
  • live  fence
  • electric  fence
  • barbed wire fence
  • chicken wire  fence
  • wooden fence
  • pole and rail fence
  • plain  wire  fence
  • trench fence
  • wall  fence
  1. c) Describe advantages of fences                           
  • keep off intruders/thieves
  • prevent  damage of crops  by  animals
  • control grazing in paddocks
  • control breeding by separating male and female
  • acts as wind break
  • control pests and disease by controlling  wild animals
  • add aesthetic value
  • provide livestock feed or human fruits  or firewood
  • add value  to the farm
  • provide security to the  house stead and farm animas
  • they form perimeter fence along the boundary to demarcate farm land from the  neighbours
  • used to isolate sick animals from the rest of the herd  to prevent spread of diseases
  • separate crop field from pasture facilitating mixed farming

  1. i) E – rafter         F- Struct

                        G- Eaves                     H- Wall plate

  1. ii) E (Rafter) – To provide support for the roofing materials

                        F (Strut) – To support the rafter/ holding the weight of the roof

                        G (Eaves) – Prevent rain from falling on the wall

                        H- (wall plate)- To support the roof

            iii) Chemicals for treating timber

  • Tar
  • Sodium dichromate
  • Copper sulphate
  • Arsenic pentoxide
  • Old engine oil
  • Pentachlorophenox
  • Tributyl tin oxide
  • Creosote
  • Paint

  1. i) K- Spill way (reject over flow pipe)

              L- Drainage channel

  1. ii) M is deeper to provide breeding place for the fish

            iii) Maintenance of the pond

  • Cleaning the pond by removing all foreign materials
  • Repairing the dyke (bunds)
  • Maintain good level of water
  • Control predators
  • Weed control around the pond
  • Plant grass on dykes to prevent erosion
  • Remove the silt if accumulated
  • Regular pond fertilization
  • Apply lime before refilling

  1. a) Siting a fish pond
  2. i) Soil type- clay soil is the best
  3. ii) Topography – requires gentle slope not Lilly and flat

               iii) Source of water – near reliable source

  1. iv) Marketing centre should be close
  2. v) Accessibility from the homestead
  3. vi) Security – protected against predators

            vii) far from natural source of fish

  1. b)
  • General farm hygiene, cleanliness of houses, equipment proper carcass disposal by burning/ burying/
  • Disinfection to destroy pathogens e.g. Anthrax and calf diseases
  • Isolation of sick animals – separated from healthy ones to avoid spread of diseases e.g. foot mouth
  • Drenching/ deworming to control internal parasites e.g. tapeworms and roundworms
  • Treatment of the sick animal – to prevent spread of diseases
  • Vaccination to create resistance to diseases on regular basis e.g. foot and mouth, anthrax, new castle
  • Control vectors – to avoid disease transmission e.g. ECF, nagana/ specific method
  • Prophylactic approach/ use of drugs to avoid injection e.g dry cow therapy against mastitis
  • Trypanocidal drugs to control trypanosomiasis
  • Proper breeding to control breeding diseases e.g. brucellosis
  • Proper feeding to prevent nutritional disorders e.g. milk fever, anaemia
  • Slaughtering/ killing – to prevent spread of contagious diseases e.g. anthrax
  • Quarantine – to avoid spread of diseases
  • – prevent introduction of diseases
  • Proper housing to avoid predisposing the animal to diseases e.g. ventilation, spacing
  • Foot trimming to minimize occurrence foot rot

  1. four factors which influence the selection of materials for constructing a diary shed
  • Kind of dairy shed i.e.  permanent  or  temporary
  • Availability of  materials
  • Cost of  materials
  • Environment conditions of climate and soil type
  • Durability of materials a
  • Availability of killed labour for  construction
  • Capital available  (1/2×4=2mks)

  1. a)



  1. i) On the diagram a provided below, draw the mark to indicate a pig number 147,

using the procedure of ear-notching in diagram above                                                                                  

ii)the recommended stage of growth in pigs at which the ear-notching should be carried out?      

  • before  wearing/3-7 weeks of age/21-56 days/1 month-22months)

iii) State any three reasons why weight is an important routine management practice in pig production    

  • to determine  growth rate  i.e. weight gain
  • facilitate  administration of drugs  e.g. drenching
  • for feeding i.e.  to  know  the  amount  of feed to give
  • to determine the service/breeding time  (1×3=3mks)

  1. b) i) B-entrance

            C-top bar/bar

            D-top  cover/lid(1×3=3mks)

  1. ii) by applying bees wax/honey/molasses on the  sides or top  of the  hive/ jaggery/sheep 

   sorrel/salvial/sugar syrup

(Accept concentrated sugar solution-reject-sugar solution)  (1×1=1mk)

iii) Outline the procedure of opening the hive to harvest honey                                                                   

smoke  the  hive  through  the entrance using  a  smoker then light the hid  to  remove  the  top  bar(the  order must be  considered)  (1×2=2mks)

  1. a) State five  maintenance practice of a  mould board plough                                               
  • Lubricate  the moving pests
  • Sharpen blunt  share
  • Tighten bolts and   nuts
  • Clean  the  plough after  use
  • Coat  the unpainted  parts with old engine oil before any storage
  • Replace worn out parts (1×5=5mks)
  1.  b) Explain five structural   and functional differences between the petrol and diesel engines            

Petrol engine

Diesel engine

i)has a carburetor

ii)fuel and air mixed in the carburetor

iii)fuel ignited by an electric spark

iv)produces little smoke

v)is  light  in weight

i)Has  an  injector pump

ii)Fuel and air  mixed  within  the cylinder

iii)fuel ignited by  compression of air and  fuel

mixture  in the cylinder

iv)produces  a lot of  smoke

v)relatively  heavy

  1.  c) List five uses of farm fences                                                                                                                  
  • keep of wild  life ,predation and  intruders
  • demarcates boundaries
  • separate crop field from pasture land
  • divide pasture land into  paddock
  • control  movement of  animals and people within  the farm and  prevent formation of unnecessary pests
  • control disease  and parasites helps in isolate  sick animals
  • helps in  controlling breeding
  • provide security
  • act as  wind break  (1×5=5mks)

  1. Uses of farm buildings
  • Protect the farm animals from predators
  • Provide shelter to the farmer and livestock
  • Used to store farm produce and valuable inputs
  • Controls livestock diseases and parasites

–     Enhances efficiencies in farm planning, budgeting and production

  1. Structural requirements for proper housing
  • Well ventilation
  • Free from cold/ draught
  • Adequate space
  • Proper drainage
  • Leak proof roof
  • Well lighting
  • Easy to clean/ concrete floor

  1. a) – roof
  2. b) P- purklin                    Q- Rafter

                        R- Cross tie                 S- Gutter

  1. c) P- Support roofing material/ iron sheet

                        Q – Collect water and safely directs it away from building

  1. a) Honey
  2. b) Crushing and straining
  3. c) Procedure of harvesting the named product
  • Wear protective clothes
  • Approach hive quietly from behind
  • Blow smoke around hive then through entrance
  • Lower hive
  • Remove lid/ cover
  • Lift top bars and brush off with bees
  • Cut honey combs with honey leaving 3cm of wax
  • Put combs in container
  • Place back bars
  • Put lid
  • Return hive in position
  1. d) Factors that affect quality of product harvested
  • Type of plant from which nectar is obtained
  • Maturity stage
  • Method of harvesting
  • Method of processing
  1. i)Docking
  2. ii) Reasons for carrying out the operation
  • Avoid incidences of blowfly
  • Make mating easy
  • Even distribution of fat in body
  • Avoid dirtifying wool

iii) Age of operation

  • within two weeks from lambing
  1. iv) Methods used for operation
  • use of rubber ring and elastrator
  • cutting with sterilized docking knife
  • use of burdizzo
  • use of hot iron bar
  1. v) Routine management practice carried out on part B

            – hoof trimming

  1. a) Five parts of plunge dip
    1. Holding yard- Hold animal before dipping
    2. Foot bath- Wash animal feet off dung, mud

                                  -Prevent foot rot/ contain copper sulphur,

  • Jump- Narrow entrance allow single animal easily to jump in dip wash
  1. Draining race- Animal held while dip wash drain back in dip tank
  2. Drying yard- Animals need to dry before allowed to pasture, avoid contamination
  3. Silt trap-raps mad, dung before dip wash flow back to dip tank, prevent siltation of dip tank
  • Shelter-Prevent evaporation

                            -Prevent dilution of dip wash with rains

  1. b) Six uses of live fences
  • Thorn species prevent wild animals and other invaders into the farm
  • Tall varieties act as wind breakers
  • Add aesthetic value to the homestead
  • Roots holds soil firmly controlling soil erosion
  • Species such as lantana canara can be used to feed livestock
  • Provide shade to livestock and man
  • Trimmed branches can be used as organic manure, wood fuel
  • Some species have medicinal value 1×6=6 marks

  1. c) Four factors that influence power output of drought animal
  2. i) Training- Proper training of oxen will plough better and faster than untrained animal
  3. ii) Feeding- Well fed animals work better than poorly fed animals

            iii) Rest-Animals given enough rest work better than those that are not

  1. iv) Honestly-Animals housed are protected from harsh condition e.g. cold thus work better
  2. v) Disease control- Animals treated when sick, vaccinated, sprayed/ dipped against

                 external parasites/ dewormed against internal parasites are more efficient

  1. vi) Age of animals- Young and very old animals give low output than averagely aged

error: Content is protected !!
Verified by MonsterInsights